Searchable Publications Authored or Co-Authored
by Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza

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Barbosa, S. D. J.; Barbosa, G. D. J.; de Souza, C. S. & Leitão, C. F.
A Semiotics-based epistemic tool to reason about ethical issues in digital technology design and development
ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT’21), ACM Press, 2021 , pp. 1-12

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
One of the important challenges regarding the development ofmorally responsible and ethically qualified digital technologies ishow to support designers and developers in producing those tech-nologies, especially when conceptualizing their vision of what thetechnology will be, how it will benefit users, and avoid doing harm.However, traditional software design and development life cyclesdo not explicitly support the reflection upon either ethical or moralissues. In this paper we look at how a number of ethical issues maybe dealt with during digital technology design and development, toprevent damage and improve technological fairness, accountability,and transparency. Starting from mature work on semiotic theoryand methods in human-computer interaction, we propose to extendthe core artifact used in semiotic engineering of human-centeredtechnology design, so as to directly address moral responsibilityand ethical issues. The resulting extension is an epistemic tool, thatis, an instrument to create and elaborate on this specific kind ofknowledge. The paper describes the tool, illustrates how it is to beused, and discusses its promises and limitations against the back-ground of related work. It also includes proposed empirical studies,accompanied by briefly described methodological challenges andconsiderations that deserve our attention.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Barbosa2021Semioticsbasedepistemic,
  author = {Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa and Gabriel Diniz Junqueira Barbosa and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Carla Faria Leitão},
  title = {A Semiotics-based epistemic tool to reason about ethical issues in digital technology design and development},
  booktitle = {ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT’21)},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {2021},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {10.1145/3442188.3445900}, 
}
---
Alves, P. H.; Frajhof, I. Z.; Correia, F. A.; de Souza, C. & Lopes, H.
Permissioned Blockchains: Towards Privacy Management and Data Regulation Compliance
Villata, S.; Harašta, J. & Křemen, P.(Eds.)
Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, IOS Press, 2020 , pp. 211-214

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Data privacy and protection has been a trending topic in recent years. The COVID 19 pandemic has brought about additional challenges and tensions. For example, sharing health data across several organizations is crucial for significant control and reduction of massive infection and death risks. This implies the need for broadly collecting and using personal and sensitive data, which raises the complexity of data protection and privacy challenges. Permissioned blockchain technology is one way to empower users in controlling how their data flows through the net, in a transparent and secure way, through an immutable, unified, and distributed database ruled by smart contracts. Given this background, we developed a second layer data governance model for permissioned blockchains based on the Governance Analytical Framework principles to be applied in pandemic situations. The model has been designed to organize the relationship between data subjects, data controller, and data processor. Regarding privacy concerns, our proposal complies with the Brazilian General Data Protection Law.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Alves2020PermissionedBlockchainsTowards,
  author = {Paulo Henrique Alves and Isabella Z. Frajhof and Fernando A. Correia and Clarisse de Souza and Helio Lopes},
  editor = {Serena Villata and Jakub Harašta and Petr Křemen},
  title = {Permissioned Blockchains: Towards Privacy Management and Data Regulation Compliance},
  booktitle = {Legal Knowledge and Information Systems},
  publisher = {IOS Press},
  year = {2020},
  pages = {211--214},
  doi = {10.3233/FAIA200866}, 
}
---
Alves, P. H.; Frajhof, I. Z.; Correia, F. A.; de Souza, C. & Lopes, H.
Second layer data governance for permissioned blockchains: the privacy management challenge
arXiv e-prints, 2020 , pp. arXiv:2010.11677

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Data privacy is a trending topic in the internet era. Given such importance, many challenges emerged in order to collect, manage, process, and publish data. In this sense, personal data have got attention, and many regulations emerged, such as GDPR in the European Union and LGPD in Brazil. This regulation model aims to protect users' data from misusage and leakage and allow users to request an explanation from companies when needed. In pandemic situations, such as the COVID-19 and Ebola outbreak, the action related to sharing health data between different organizations is/ was crucial to develop a significant movement to avoid the massive infection and decrease the number of deaths. However, the data subject, i.e., the users, should have the right to request the purpose of data use, anonymization, and data deletion. In this sense, permissioned blockchain technology emerges to empower users to get their rights providing data ownership, transparency, and security through an immutable, unified, and distributed database ruled by smart contracts. The governance model discussed in blockchain applications is usually regarding the first layer governance, i.e., public and permissioned models. However, this discussion is too superficial, and they do not cover compliance with the data regulations. Therefore, in order to organize the relationship between data owners and the stakeholders, i.e., companies and governmental entities, we developed a second layer data governance model for permissioned blockchains based on the Governance Analytical Framework principles applied in pandemic situations preserving the users' privacy and their duties. From the law perspective, we based our model on the UE GDPR in regard to data privacy concerns.

BibTeX:
@article{Alves2020Secondlayerdata,
  author = {Alves, Paulo Henrique and Frajhof, Isabella Z. and Correia, Fernando A. and de Souza, Clarisse and Lopes, Helio},
  title = {Second layer data governance for permissioned blockchains: the privacy management challenge},
  journal = {arXiv e-prints},
  year = {2020},
  pages = {arXiv:2010.11677},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.11677}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
Sujeitos Ocultos e Indeterminados da Computação
SBC Horizontes, Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2020, Oct 2020 , pp. 1 html page

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Uma das tradições persistentes da pesquisa na área de computação e das atividades profissionais de desenvolvimento de software é a tendência a não tratar da subjetividade presente nos processos de investigação científica e produção de tecnologia, exceto quando se trata de levantar requisitos para satisfazer os usuários, clientes e outras partes envolvidas em tecnologias específicas. A subárea de Interação Humano-Computador (IHC) é centralmente incumbida deste tipo de tarefa e tem, ao longo dos anos, se debruçado sobre questões cada vez mais espinhosas para a sociedade como um todo, e não apenas para o círculo de usuários e clientes desta ou daquela tecnologia. Os avanços da Inteligência Artificial (IA), por exemplo, têm mostrado com clareza que há mais humanos de quem tratar na computação do que os usuários. Entretanto, os fundamentos teóricos da computação, que preparam o caminho para cientistas e profissionais técnicos que vão atuar em um dos setores de maior impacto social neste início de século, continuam distantes das subjetividades que tão claramente estão em jogo em tudo o que fazemos. Mas como incluí-las no chamado núcleo duro da Computação? Aliás, por que “núcleo duro”? Hora de rever conceitos e práticas!

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2020SujeitosOcultose,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {Sujeitos Ocultos e Indeterminados da Computação},
  journal = {SBC Horizontes},
  publisher = {Sociedade Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {Oct 2020},
  pages = {1 html page},
  url = {http://horizontes.sbc.org.br/index.php/2020/10/sujeitos-ocultos-e-indeterminados-da-computacao/}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
A Contrastive Study of Pre- and Post-legislation Interaction Design for Communication and Action About Personal Data Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Lamas, D.; Loizides, F.; Nacke, L.; Petrie, H.; Winckler, M. & Zaphiris, P.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction -- INTERACT 2019, Springer International Publishing, 2019 , pp. 3-23

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has had a major impact on data collection and processing practices. It has also challenged interaction design aiming to support the effectiveness of data owners' rights, their informed decisions, and their actions regarding how personal information is used by companies, governments, and others. Similar legislation has been issued in various non-European countries, which means that, in this respect, the HCI community has an important role to play for users all over the world. This paper presents the conclusions of a contrastive study with four major e-commerce websites in Portugal, where data protection law has been effective since 2018, and four analogs in Brazil, where the national Data Protection Law (DPL) has been sanctioned but will only be effective in 2020. The purpose of the study is to examine the pre-legislation to post-legislation evolution in the design of interaction for communication and action about personal data protection matters, so as to anticipate some of the threats and opportunities ahead of us. Using concepts and elements of Semiotic Engineering methods and techniques, we found that, within the scope of this study, GDPR seems to have had little impact on what European users can do and experience online, compared to pre-DPL Brazilian users. We discuss some of the possible reasons for this and conclude with thoughts on the role of interaction design in empowering data owners for this new regulation era.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2019ContrastiveStudyPre,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  editor = {Lamas, David and Loizides, Fernando and Nacke, Lennart and Petrie, Helen and Winckler, Marco and Zaphiris, Panayiotis},
  title = {A Contrastive Study of Pre- and Post-legislation Interaction Design for Communication and Action About Personal Data Protection in e-Commerce Websites},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction -- INTERACT 2019},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {3--23},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-29387-1_1},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-29387-1_1}, 
}
---
Lopes, A.; Oliveira, E.; Conte, T. & de Souza, C. S.
Directives of Communicability: Teaching Students How to Improve Communication Through Software Modeling
2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceedings (ICSE-Companion), 2019 , pp. 306-307

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In the development process, software models are used to support communication among development team members. Failures of communication that is mediated by software models may generate inconsistencies in software behavior, generating rework to correct them. This may occur because producers usually focus only on model content, although they should also reflect on how other members of the development team will interpret their models. We should therefore teach software engineering students how to communicate better through software models. In an attempt to improve communication through software models, we have developed the Directives of Communicability (DCs), based on theories that investigate different kinds of communication. In this poster, we present the highlights of a study to find out whether DCs improve software engineering students' communication through software models. Our results confirm that DCs have improved the students' reflections on how their models' content will be interpreted during the software development process.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Lopes2019DirectivesCommunicabilityTeaching,
  author = {A. Lopes and E. Oliveira and T. Conte and C. S. de Souza},
  title = {Directives of Communicability: Teaching Students How to Improve Communication Through Software Modeling},
  booktitle = {2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceedings (ICSE-Companion)},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {306--307},
  doi = {10.1109/ICSE-Companion.2019.00127}, 
}
---
Lopes, A.; Oliveira, E.; Conte, T. & Sieckenius de Souza, C.
Directives of Communicability: Towards Better Communication through Software Models
2019 IEEE/ACM 12th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE), 2019 , pp. 45-48

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In the development process, software models are commonly used to support communication among members of the development team. The risks of miscommunication through software models relate to the model content and to how content is expressed by the modeler. Communication failures mediated by software models may generate inconsistencies in software behavior, generating rework to correct them later. Aiming to improve model communication quality between their producers and consumers, we developed the Directives of Communicability (DCs). The aim of this paper is to present the DCs and an empirical study. The empirical study indicated that the directives had the intended potential to reduce miscommunication of what software models meant to those who produced them. From the results of this study, we notice that DCs can improve communication quality between model producers and consumers. Our results also show that DCs helped the producers' reflections on their models' content.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Lopes2019DirectivesCommunicabilityTowards,
  author = {A. Lopes and E. Oliveira and T. Conte and C. Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {Directives of Communicability: Towards Better Communication through Software Models},
  booktitle = {2019 IEEE/ACM 12th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE)},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {45--48},
  doi = {10.1109/CHASE.2019.00019}, 
}
---
Brandão, R.; Carbonera, J.; de Souza, C.; Ferreira, J.; Gonçalves, B. & Leitão, C.
Mediation Challenges and Socio-Technical Gaps for Explainable Deep Learning Applications
arXiv e-prints, 2019 , pp. arXiv:1907.07178

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The presumed data owners' right to explanations brought about by the General Data Protection Regulation in Europe has shed light on the social challenges of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI). In this paper, we present a case study with Deep Learning (DL) experts from a research and development laboratory focused on the delivery of industrial-strength AI technologies. Our aim was to investigate the social meaning (i.e. meaning to others) that DL experts assign to what they do, given a richly contextualized and familiar domain of application. Using qualitative research techniques to collect and analyze empirical data, our study has shown that participating DL experts did not spontaneously engage into considerations about the social meaning of machine learning models that they build. Moreover, when explicitly stimulated to do so, these experts expressed expectations that, with real-world DL application, there will be available mediators to bridge the gap between technical meanings that drive DL work, and social meanings that AI technology users assign to it. We concluded that current research incentives and values guiding the participants' scientific interests and conduct are at odds with those required to face some of the scientific challenges involved in advancing XAI, and thus responding to the alleged data owners' right to explanations or similar societal demands emerging from current debates. As a concrete contribution to mitigate what seems to be a more general problem, we propose three preliminary XAI Mediation Challenges with the potential to bring together technical and social meanings of DL applications, as well as to foster much needed interdisciplinary collaboration among AI and the Social Sciences researchers.

BibTeX:
@article{Brandao2019MediationChallengesSocio,
  author = {Brandão, Rafael and Carbonera, Joel and de Souza, Clarisse and Ferreira, Juliana and Gonçalves, Bernardo and Leitão, Carla},
  title = {Mediation Challenges and Socio-Technical Gaps for Explainable Deep Learning Applications},
  journal = {arXiv e-prints},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {arXiv:1907.07178},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.07178}, 
}
---
Chagas, B. A.; Redmiles, D. F. & de Souza, C. S.
Signs of Appropriation: A Semiotic Account of Breakdowns with IOT Technology
Journal on Interactive Systems, 2019, 10 , pp. 3-19

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The Internet of Things (IOT) is an emerging technology powered by smart devices that increasingly populate our environment and transform our practices. Understanding how technologies are appropriated is a key asset for designing them successfully. In this paper, we present findings from an in situ study where we observed how people use and adapt commercially available smart home technology, in real practice, and over time. By using semiotic theory and thematic analysis to investigate data from diaries, questionnaires and interviews collected from a group of eleven participants, we characterized IoT appropriation as interpretive states that can evolve overtime. We also identified eight classes of appropriation breakdowns and derived two semiotic qualities for IoT technologies. We propose that, together, they have the potential to support productive decision making by IoT designers, as well as to raise new research questions on the topic.

BibTeX:
@article{Chagas2019SignsAppropriationSemiotic,
  author = {Bruno A. Chagas and David F. Redmiles and Clarisse S. de Souza},
  title = {Signs of Appropriation: A Semiotic Account of Breakdowns with IOT Technology},
  journal = {Journal on Interactive Systems},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {10},
  number = {2},
  pages = {3--19},
  url = {https://sol.sbc.org.br/journals/index.php/jis/article/view/550},
  doi = {10.5753/jis.2019.550}, 
}
---
Müller, L.; Silveira, M. S. & de Souza, C. S.
Source Code Comprehension and Appropriation by Novice Programmers: Understanding Novice Programmers’ Perception about Source Code Reuse
Journal on Interactive Systems, 2019, 10 , pp. 96-109

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Software development practices rely extensively on reusing source code written by other programmers. One of the recurring questions about such practice is how much programmers, acting as users of somebody else’s code, really understand the source code that they inject it in their programs. The question is even more important for novices, who are trying to learn what programming is and how it should be practiced on a larger scale. In this paper we present the results of an ongoing research using a semiotic approach to investigate how novice programmers reuse source code, and how, through messages inscribed in the source code of the programs they write or reuse, they communicate, implicitly or explicitly, what such source code means to them and others. We carried out three studies with novice programmers, and results suggest that source code reuse may impact what programmers take their source code to mean.

BibTeX:
@article{Mueller2019SourceCodeComprehension,
  author = {Luana Müller and Milene Selbach Silveira and Clarisse S. de Souza},
  title = {Source Code Comprehension and Appropriation by Novice Programmers: Understanding Novice Programmers’ Perception about Source Code Reuse},
  journal = {Journal on Interactive Systems},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {10},
  number = {2},
  pages = {96--109},
  url = {https://sol.sbc.org.br/journals/index.php/jis/article/view/556},
  doi = {10.5753/jis.2019.556}, 
}
---
Ribeiro, P. C.; Schardong, G. G.; Barbosa, S. D.; de Souza, C. S. & Lopes, H.
Visual exploration of an ensemble of classifiers
Computers & Graphics, 2019, 85 , pp. 23-41

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Inspecting the outputs of classification algorithms is becoming progressively difficult due to the increase in both scale and complexity of both the data and the algorithms. This has led to research efforts to develop new techniques to interpret the behavior of these algorithms and to facilitate the understanding of their results. A common classification approach is the “ensemble of classifiers”, where a set of classifiers c ∈ C is trained on the input data set and the final classification is computed by “voting”, i.e., ranking their results. One of the issues with this approach, however, is that instead of having only one classifier to analyze, now there are |C|, each with its characteristics. Thus, there is a demand for methods that provide insights into the results of an ensemble of classifiers and at the same time allow a detailed analysis of each classifier in the ensemble. Our work proposes to draw on dimensionality reduction techniques to provide visual tools to interpret the results of an ensemble of classifiers, while also giving insights into how each classifier contributes to the final results. Our approach also presents a measure of classification uncertainty by highlighting regions where there is a divergence among the classifiers in the ensemble, allowing one to focus their analysis on these regions. We tested our approach using the Digits MNIST and Fashion MNIST data sets. Through the use of maps that provide an overview of a classifier behavior to instance-based visualizations, we show how our approach can assist in the interpretation of why a specific decision (classification) was made.

BibTeX:
@article{Ribeiro2019Visualexplorationensemble,
  author = {Paula Ceccon Ribeiro and Guilherme G. Schardong and Simone D.J. Barbosa and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Hélio Lopes},
  title = {Visual exploration of an ensemble of classifiers},
  journal = {Computers & Graphics},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {23--41},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0097849319301402},
  doi = {10.1016/j.cag.2019.08.012}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
A Pragmatic Turn in Computer Science
Interactions, ACM, 2018, 25 , pp. 20-21

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In this column paper, Clarisse de Souza writes about the role that HCI could (and possibly should) play, adding a Pragmatic component to the theoretical description of formal computer languages, in the same way as Pragmatics has enriched the theoretical description of natural human languages.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2018PragmaticTurnComputer,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {A Pragmatic Turn in Computer Science},
  journal = {Interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {25},
  number = {3},
  pages = {20--21},
  doi = {10.1145/3200147}, 
}
---
Lopes, A.; Campos, U.; Conte, T. & de Souza, C. S.
ComD2: Family of Techniques for Inspecting Defects in Models That Affect Team Communication
Pereira, O. M. & Perkusich, A.(Eds.)
Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, KSI Research Inc. and Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, 2018 , pp. 298-303

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Communication failures in software development teams can compromise the software quality. Therefore, identifying and mitigating risks for effective team communication are important activities in software development. Software models are one of the means of communication in development teams, because it communicates other members of the development team about the software. Thus, our research focuses on inspection techniques for identifying defects that affect the team communication through the software models. This paper presents a family of techniques for inspecting defects that affect team communication, called ComD2 (Communication between Designers and Developers). The ComD2 family was developed based on theories that investigate different ways of communication. For the time being, the ComD2 family has three specific inspection techniques for UML models, such as class diagrams, activity diagrams, and state machine diagrams. We performed a feasibility study and the results showed that the ComD2 family was considered useful for the identification of defects that affect the team communication through the software models.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Lopes2018ComD2FamilyTechniques,
  author = {Adriana Lopes and Ursula Campos and Tayana Conte and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  editor = {Oscar Mortagua Pereira and Angelo Perkusich},
  title = {ComD2: Family of Techniques for Inspecting Defects in Models That Affect Team Communication},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering},
  publisher = {KSI Research Inc. and Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {298--303},
  url = {http://ksiresearchorg.ipage.com/seke/seke18.html},
  doi = {10.18293/SEKE2018-155}, 
}
---
Müller, L.; Silveira, M. S. & de Souza, C. S.
Do I Know What My Code Is "Saying"?: A Study on Novice Programmers' Perceptions of What Reused Source Code May Mean
Proceedings of the 17th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2018 , pp. 17:1-17:10

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Software development practices rely extensively on reusing source code written by other programmers. One of the recurring questions about such practice is how much programmers, acting as users of somebody else's code, really understand about the source code that they inject it in their own programs. The question is even more important for novices, who are trying to learn what programming is and how it should be practiced in larger scale. In this paper we present the results of an ongoing research using a semiotic approach to investigate how programmers send and receive, through messages inscribed in the source code of the programs they write or reuse, implicit and explicit communication about what such source code "means" to them and others. We carried out two studies with novice programmers and results suggest that source code reuse may impact the comprehension that programmers have about their own source code. In addition, how it impacts their understanding about the messages that are being communicated through their programs.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Mueller2018DoIKnow,
  author = {Müller, Luana and Silveira, Milene Selbach and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Do I Know What My Code Is "Saying"?: A Study on Novice Programmers' Perceptions of What Reused Source Code May Mean},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {17:1--17:10},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3274192.3274209},
  doi = {10.1145/3274192.3274209}, 
}
---
Carbonera, J. L.; Gonçalves, B. N. & de Souza, C. S.
O Problema da Explicação em Inteligência Artificial: Considerações a Partir da Semiótica
TECCOGS: REVISTA DIGITAL DE TECNOLOGIAS COGNITIVAS, 2018, 17 , pp. 59-75

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Since the expert systems of the 1980s and 1990s, Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers have tried to solve the the problem of explanation, namely, given an inference from the system, how to identify the steps or mechanisms that have led to the conclusion. With the recent success of AI systems, especially those based on deep learning, this problem has come to the fore again more forcefully since the processesare opaque as far as their inferences are concerned, in contrast to expert systems, which are based on logical rules. In this text, we present the problem of explanation, including highlights from its most recent literature in the area of AI. Next, we indicate gaps in past and recent approaches, and then present considerations from Peirce's semiotics, which, as we argue, could contribute to a balanced management of this technology in society.

BibTeX:
@article{Carbonera2018OProblemada,
  author = {Joel L. Carbonera and Bernardo N. Gonçalves and Clarisse S. de Souza},
  title = {O Problema da Explicação em Inteligência Artificial: Considerações a Partir da Semiótica},
  journal = {TECCOGS: REVISTA DIGITAL DE TECNOLOGIAS COGNITIVAS},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {59--75},
  url = {https://www.pucsp.br/pos/tidd/teccogs/artigos/2018/edicao_17/teccogs17_artigo03.pdf}, 
}
---
Chagas, B. A.; Redmiles, D. F. & de Souza, C. S.
Observed Appropriation of IOT Technology: A Semiotic Account
Proceedings of the 17th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2018 , pp. 33:1-33:10

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology powered by smart devices that increasingly pervades our environments and practices. The process of incorporating technology into one's practices involves use and adaptation of the technology and is usually referred to as appropriation. In research about IoT, appropriation of IoT technology is a rather new topic. It is necessary to understand how appropriation takes place in order to be able to provide strong support for it in the design of technology. In this paper, we present the initial results of an in-situ study observing how people use and adapt commercially available smart home technology, in practice, over time. We took Semiotic Engineering as a theoretical lens to understand the appropriation we observed in actual settings. Our contribution is to propose a semiotic account of appropriation and two derived qualities that can help designers address appropriation support in IoT technologies.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Chagas2018ObservedAppropriationIOT,
  author = {Chagas, Bruno A. and Redmiles, David F. and de Souza, Clarisse S.},
  title = {Observed Appropriation of IOT Technology: A Semiotic Account},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {33:1--33:10},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3274192.3274225},
  doi = {10.1145/3274192.3274225}, 
}
---
Ferreira, J. S. J.; de Souza, C. S.; de Mello Brandão, R. R. & Leitão, C. F.
SigniFYI-CDN: Merged Communicability and Usability Methods to Evaluate Notation-Intensive Interaction
eprint arXiv:1808.08138, 2018, 08/2018 , pp. 1-12

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
We present SigniFYI-CDN, an inspection method built from previously proposed methods combining Semiotic Engineering and the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations. Compared to its predecessors, SigniFYI-CDN simplifies procedural steps and supports them with more analytic scaffolds. It is especially fit for the study of interaction with technologies where notations are created and used by various people, or by a single person in various, and potentially distant, occasions. In such cases, notations may serve several purposes, like (mutual) comprehension, recall, coordination, negotiation, and documentation. We illustrate SigniFYI-CDN with highlights from the evaluation of a computer tool that supports qualitative data analysis. Our contribution is a simpler tool for researchers and practitioners to probe the power of combined communicability and usability analysis of interaction with increasingly complex data-intensive applications.

BibTeX:
@article{Ferreira2018SigniFYICDNMerged,
  author = {Juliana Soares Jansen Ferreira and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Rafael Rossi de Mello Brandão and Carla Faria Leitão},
  title = {SigniFYI-CDN: Merged Communicability and Usability Methods to Evaluate Notation-Intensive Interaction},
  journal = {eprint arXiv:1808.08138},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {08/2018},
  number = {arXiv:1808.08138},
  pages = {1--12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.08138}, 
}
---
Afonso, L. M.; Bastos, J. A. M. D.; de Souza, C. S. & de Gusmão Cerqueira, R. F.
The Case for API Communicability Evaluation: Introducing API-SI with Examples from Keras
eprint arXiv:1808.05891, 2018, 08/2018 , pp. 1-9

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In addition to their vital role in professional software development, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are now increasingly used by non-professional programmers, including end users, scientists and experts from other domains. Therefore , good APIs must meet old and new user requirements. Most of the research on API evaluation and design derives from user-centered, cognitive perspectives on human-computer interaction. As an alternative, we present a lower-threshold variant of a previously proposed semiotic API evaluation tool. We illustrate the procedures and power of this variant, called API Signification Inspection (API-SI), with Keras, a Deep Learning API. The illustration also shows how the method can complement and fertilize API usability studies. Additionally, API-SI is packaged as an introductory semiotic tool that API designers and researchers can use to evaluate the communication of design intent and product rationale to other programmers through implicit and explicit signs thereof, en- countered in the API structure, behavior and documentation.

BibTeX:
@article{Afonso2018CaseAPICommunicability,
  author = {Luiz Marques Afonso and João Antonio Marcondes Dutra Bastos and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Renato Fontoura de Gusmão Cerqueira},
  title = {The Case for API Communicability Evaluation: Introducing API-SI with Examples from Keras},
  journal = {eprint arXiv:1808.05891},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {08/2018},
  number = {2018arXiv180805891M},
  pages = {1--9},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.05891}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O.; Rosson, M. B. & de Souza, C. S.
Analyzing the Communicability of Configuration Decision Space over Time in Collaborative Systems through a Case Study
SBC Journal on Interactive Systems - JIS, 2017, 8 , pp. 15

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Some configuration settings have immediate impact on system state; others have impact over time. In collaborative systems, the timeline of impacts can be even more complex, because changes may impact not only the user who made them but also other users. In this paper, we analyze the challenges involved in specifying configuration in collaborative systems that have impact over time. To do so, we have chosen Google Inactive Account Manager (IAM) as a case study, since it offers a limited set of decisions, but that addresses different aspects that are relevant to future impact configuration. In order to generate a thorough and systematic analysis of the communicability of Google IAM}s decision space we used the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM) and the Configurable Interaction Anticipation Challenges (CIAC), as well as the Modeling Language for Interactive Collaborative Conversations (MoLICC). Our results describe and explain some of the main issues associated to the complexity of decisions that users may take in during a configuration task.

BibTeX:
@article{Prates2017AnalyzingCommunicabilityConfiguration,
  author = {Raquel Oliveira Prates and Mary Beth Rosson and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {Analyzing the Communicability of Configuration Decision Space over Time in Collaborative Systems through a Case Study},
  journal = {SBC Journal on Interactive Systems - JIS},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {8},
  number = {2},
  pages = {15},
  url = {http://www.seer.ufrgs.br/jis/article/view/73192}, 
}
---
Lopes, A.; Conte, T. & de Souza, C. S.
Analyzing the Use Case Communicability
Proceedings of the XVI Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2017 , pp. 13:1-13:10

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Software artifacts are products created during software development. Through them, designers communicate their intent and understanding of a system to other members of the development team. And the intent will, in the end, be communicated to end users through the system’s interface. In this paper, we present a study about forms of expression for the informational content of use cases, and how they can affect mutual understanding among members of a software development team. We adopted the Semiotic Engineering perspective (in particular, the SigniFYIng Message tool) and the maxims of the Grice}s Cooperative Principle to structure and analyze data collected from 17 pairs of participants. The results show evidence of communication strategies that may impair the communication between designers and developers and, subsequently, the metacommunication of design intent to end users through the system}s interface.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Lopes2017AnalyzingUseCase,
  author = {Lopes, Adriana and Conte, Tayana and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Analyzing the Use Case Communicability},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the XVI Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {13:1--13:10},
  doi = {10.1145/3160504.3160539}, 
}
---
Chagas, B. A.; Redmiles, D. F. & de Souza, C.
End-User Development for the Internet of Things or How Can a (Smart) Light Bulb Be so Complicated?
2017 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC), 2017 , pp. 273-277

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
End-User Development (EUD) has been identified as one approach to address some of the challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT) by enabling people to configure technology to their specific needs and preferences. For this potential to be realized, end-users need appropriate tools to support them and, in order to build such tools, developers need a deeper understanding of what EUD for IoT really means. This paper proposes a framing for EUD for IoT based on semiotic engineering theory for human-centered computing (HCC) and explores how this framing can be used with a concrete example of existing technology. Our contribution is to present a new way of framing research questions in this area, which we illustrate with a brief example.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Chagas2017EndUserDevelopment,
  author = {B. A. Chagas and D. F. Redmiles and C.S. de Souza},
  title = {End-User Development for the Internet of Things or How Can a (Smart) Light Bulb Be so Complicated?},
  booktitle = {2017 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC)},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {273--277},
  doi = {10.1109/VLHCC.2017.8103478}, 
}
---
Bastos, J. A. D. M.; Afonso, L. M. & de Souza, C.
Metacommunication between Programmers through an Application Programming Interface: A Semiotic Analysis of Date and Time APIs
2017 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC), 2017 , pp. 213-221

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
When programmers use an API, they play the role of a }software user}. As the quality of use of programs and systems affects productivity, more attention has been paid to API usability issues. This work focuses on another dimension of the quality of use, }communicability}, which is characteristic of a semiotic approach. The paper presents a Semiotic Engineering study on the communicability of APIs. We analyzed metacommunication - a central concept of the theory we use - between designers and users of date APIs, specifically, using the }SigniFYIng APIs} method. The results of the analysis were then related to the testimony of professional programmers during an interview concerning their experience with APIs and programming in general. We illustrate and discuss the value of the results achieved with our API communicability analysis, which in our view is a promising addition to research initiatives that have been exploring API usability.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bastos2017MetacommunicationProgrammersApplication,
  author = {J. A. D. M. Bastos and L. M. Afonso and C.S. de Souza},
  title = {Metacommunication between Programmers through an Application Programming Interface: A Semiotic Analysis of Date and Time APIs},
  booktitle = {2017 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC)},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {213--221},
  doi = {10.1109/VLHCC.2017.8103470}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
Semiotic Engineering: A Cohering Theory to Connect EUD with HCI, CMC and More
Paternò, F. & Wulf, V.(Eds.)
New Perspectives in End-User Development, Springer International Publishing, 2017 , pp. 269-305

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Theories have an important role to play in research areas whose application faces rapid technological changes. They can provide longer-term intellectual references that shape deeper investigations and contribute to consolidate the identity of such research areas. A recent survey of EUD-related work published between 2004 and 2013 suggests that our field is remarkably techno-centered and could increase its scientific impact by diversifying some of its research approaches and practices. In this paper we show concrete examples of how Semiotic Engineering, originally a semiotic theory of human-computer interaction, can provide a unified theoretical framing for various EUD-related topics of investigation. Our contribution to the collection of chapters in this book is to demonstrate this particular theory}s potential as a catalyst of new kinds of transdisciplinary debate, as well as a source of inspiration for new breeds of technological developments.

BibTeX:
@incollection{Souza2017SemioticEngineeringCohering,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  editor = {Paternò, Fabio and Wulf, Volker},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering: A Cohering Theory to Connect EUD with HCI, CMC and More},
  booktitle = {New Perspectives in End-User Development},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {269--305},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_11}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
Semiotics and Human-Computer Interaction
2
The Wiley Handbook of Human Computer Interaction, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017 , pp. 33-49

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Summary This chapter presents a broad-brush picture of what Semiotics is and how it can contribute to advance HCI research and practice. Content and references privilege clarity and cohesion of presentation, rather than coverage of existing work. It begins with a concrete example of user-system interaction from which the author extracts the elements to introduce some fundamental concepts in semiotic theories and show how they can be applied to HCI. The chapter also includes an overview of work done to date in this interdisciplinary field, as well as a final commentary on potential avenues for future research.

BibTeX:
@inbook{Souza2017SemioticsHumanComputer,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  chapter = {2},
  title = {Semiotics and Human-Computer Interaction},
  booktitle = {The Wiley Handbook of Human Computer Interaction},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {33--49},
  doi = {10.1002/9781118976005.ch2}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. T.; de Castro Salgado, L. C.; Mota, M. P.; Sampaio, A. L. & de Souza, C. S.
Signifying Software Engineering to Computational Thinking Learners with Agentsheets and Polifacets
Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, 2017, 40 , pp. 91-112

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Abstract Nonprofessional end user programs have increased remarkably in volume and diversity. However, for such programs to be usable and reliable, their creators should be familiar with software engineering practices that are typically not part of their range of competence and source of enjoyment. While the expansion of computational thinking acquisition (CTA) initiatives at schools and the availability of improved programming environments have contributed to facilitate the learners} coding tasks, much less has been done to facilitate the acquisition of software quality notions. This paper reports on a Brazilian CTA\ program guided by semiotic principles and describes a study of how the technology used in it prefigures elements of software engineering in the participants} programs created with AgentSheets. Our research contributions touch on the semiotic potential of CTA\ infrastructures and on associated pedagogical considerations for expanding CTA\ programs with software engineering basics. We also propose items for an interdisciplinary research agenda.

BibTeX:
@article{Monteiro2017SignifyingSoftwareEngineering,
  author = {Ingrid Teixeira Monteiro and Luciana Cardoso de Castro Salgado and Marcelle Pereira Mota and Andréia Libório Sampaio and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {Signifying Software Engineering to Computational Thinking Learners with Agentsheets and Polifacets},
  journal = {Journal of Visual Languages & Computing},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {91--112},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1045926X16300234},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jvlc.2017.01.005}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O.; Rosson, M. B. & de Souza, C.
Analysis of Configuration Decision Space Over Time: The Google Inactive Manager Account Case
de Santana, V. F.; Ferreira, J. S. J.; Salgado, L. C. C. & Jr, P. T.(Eds.)
XV Simpósio Brasileiro sobre Fatores Humanos em Sistemas Computacionais (Proceedings), Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2016 , pp. 10 p

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Some configuration settings have immediate impact on system state; others have impact over time. In group systems, the timeline of impacts can be even more complex, because change s may impact not only the user who made them but also other users. When a system is designed, its designers plan what configuration settings to provide users with, as well as how these settings will affect the system and when. They must also help users ant icipate how these settings impact the available interactive paths over time, so that users can make informed decisions about their settings. In this paper we show how two analytical tools - the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM) and the Configurable Interaction Anticipation Challenges (CIAC) - can be combined to probe the complexity of decisions that users may take in during a configuration task. We take Google Inactive Account Manager as our case, since all the decisions involved relate to future effects.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Prates2016AnalysisConfigurationDecision,
  author = {Prates, R. O. and Rosson, M. B. and de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {V. F. de Santana and J. S. J. Ferreira and L. C. C. Salgado and P. T.Aquino Jr},
  title = {Analysis of Configuration Decision Space Over Time: The Google Inactive Manager Account Case},
  booktitle = {XV Simpósio Brasileiro sobre Fatores Humanos em Sistemas Computacionais (Proceedings)},
  publisher = {Sociedade Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {10 p},
  url = {http://www-di.inf.puc-rio.br/ clarisse//docs/Prates2016.pdf}, 
}
---
Salgado, L. C. d. C.; de Souza, C. S.; Ferreira, C. M. D. & Leitão, C. F.
Characterizing Intercultural Encounters in Human-Computer Interaction
Rau, P. P.-L.(Ed.)
Cross-Cultural Design: 8th International Conference, CCD 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, 2016, LNCS 9741 , pp. 108-119

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This article presents a two-step study, which is part of a project that aims at investigating how cross-cultural systems, intentionally or not, express and promote indirect intercultural encounters in Human-Computer Interaction. Previous research have proposed five Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors, a Semiotic Engineering conceptual tool to support HCI designers to understand and organize communicative strategies in the interactive discourse to promote such encounters. At this stage of our research we investigated the design of cross-cultural systems using CVM and one of the best known among numerous classes of signs proposed by Peirce -- icons, indices and symbols, aiming at supporting the semiotic engineering (specifically, the choice of signs, i.e. the interface elements) of these kind of applications. Our findings point at the power of an alignment of the semiotic characteristics of Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors with theoretical semiotic elements from Peirce}s typology of signs in the interaction design cycle of cross-cultural systems.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Salgado2016CharacterizingInterculturalEncounters,
  author = {Salgado, Luciana C. de C. and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Ferreira, Catia M. D. and Leitão, Carla Faria},
  editor = {Rau, Patrick Pei-Luen},
  title = {Characterizing Intercultural Encounters in Human-Computer Interaction},
  booktitle = {Cross-Cultural Design: 8th International Conference, CCD 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {LNCS 9741},
  pages = {108--119},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-40093-8_12}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.; Cerqueira, R. F. G.; Afonso, L. M.; Brandão, R. R. M. & Ferreira, J. S. J.
Software Developers as Users. Semiotic Investigations in Human-Centered Software Development
Springer International Publishing, 2016

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This book presents the SigniFYI Suite of conceptual and methodological tools, designed to uncover meanings inscribed in software, their origins, intent and consequences to identify and trace correlating patterns; from software design and development to software use and experience. Based on the study of Semiotic Engineering, the book advances the e study of Human-Centered Computing (HCC), inviting professionals, researchers, teachers and students to reflect upon how subjective and cultural values manifest themselves through software models, programs and user interfaces. The authors weave a mesh of technical, theoretical and philosophical considerations of what it means to build and use software, exploring what we (professionals and non-professionals) mean by the pieces of software we design and develop, as well as what pieces of software mean to end-users and others. Explicitly dedicated to software designers, developers and users, Software Developers as Users is a provocative view of socio-technical communication in the digital age.

BibTeX:
@book{Souza2016SoftwareDevelopersas,
  author = {Clarisse S. de Souza and Renato F. G. Cerqueira and Luiz M. Afonso and Rafael R. M. Brandão and Juliana S. J. Ferreira},
  title = {Software Developers as Users. Semiotic Investigations in Human-Centered Software Development},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2016},
  edition = {1},
  url = {http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319428291},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-42831-4}, 
}
---
Prates, R.; Rosson, M. & de Souza, C.
Interaction Anticipation: Communicating Impacts of Groupware Configuration Settings to Users
End-User Development. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium, IS-EUD 2015, Springer International Publishing, 2015, 9083 , pp. 192-197

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
As collaborative systems have become more integrated into everyday life, designers have tried to bridge the social-technical gap by building more flexible systems that allow users to configure their interactions with other users (e.g. who sees their photos). Although researchers have studied configuration in groupware, we have not found any research on whether and how users can anticipate possible interactive paths that are defined as a consequence of their choices and how these paths might be impacted by other users' actions over time. In this brief paper we offer an initial framing of what we call the interaction anticipation problem and propose five challenges that designers must face in order to address it.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Prates2015InteractionAnticipationCommunicating,
  author = {Prates, R.O. and Rosson, M.B. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Interaction Anticipation: Communicating Impacts of Groupware Configuration Settings to Users},
  booktitle = {End-User Development. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium, IS-EUD 2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9083},
  pages = {192--197},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_15}, 
}
---
Chagas, B. A.; Fuks, H. & de Souza, C.
Lessons Learned in the Design of Configurable Assistive Technology with Smart Devices
End-User Development. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium, IS-EUD 2015, Springer International Publishing, 2015, 9083 , pp. 180-185

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Assistive Technology (AT) aims at compensating for motor, sensory or cognitive functional limitations of its users. We report on a study with a single tetraplegic participant using AT that we have been developing for interaction with multiple devices in smart connected environments. We wanted to investigate a user}s reaction during his first encounter with this technology and to verify if needs and opportunities for AT configuration would emerge from study activities and interviews. Results show implicit and explicit configuration needs and opportunities suggesting that we must address both hardware and software configuration, some to be done by the end user, others by assistants. At this initial stage our contribution is to propose a structure for organizing the AT configuration problem space in order to support the design of similar technologies.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Chagas2015LessonsLearnedDesign,
  author = {Chagas, B. A. and Fuks, H. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Lessons Learned in the Design of Configurable Assistive Technology with Smart Devices},
  booktitle = {End-User Development. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium, IS-EUD 2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9083},
  pages = {180--185},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_13}, 
}
---
Prates, R.; Rosson, M. & de Souza, C.
Making Decisions about Digital Legacy with Google}s Inactive Account Manager
Abascal, J.; Barbosa, S.; Fetter, M.; Gross, T.; Palanque, P. & Winckler, M.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2015, Springer International Publishing, 2015, 9296 , pp. 201-209

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
As information systems become more integrated into everyday use, people generate and store significant data through their lifetimes. Only recently have researchers and companies started to pay attention to digital legacy issues. Google has been one of the first companies to support users in planning the future of their digital assets through Google Inactive Account Manager (IAM). In this work, we present a systematic analysis of IAM and discuss how it structures users' digital legacy decision space and deals with challenges regarding future impact of these decisions.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Prates2015MakingDecisionsDigital,
  author = {Prates, R.O. and Rosson, M.B. and de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {Julio Abascal and Simone Barbosa and Mirko Fetter and Tom Gross and Philippe Palanque and Marco Winckler},
  title = {Making Decisions about Digital Legacy with Google}s Inactive Account Manager},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9296},
  pages = {201--209},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-22701-6_14}, 
}
---
Bødker, S.; Bertelsen, O. W.; Bannon, L.; de Souza, C.; Barbosa, S. & Prates, R.
Mediation and Meaning in HCI
Abascal, J.; Barbosa, S.; Fetter, M.; Gross, T.; Palanque, P. & Winckler, M.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Bamberg, Germany, September 14-18, 2015, Proceedings, Part IV, Springer International Publishing, 2015 , pp. 667-668

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This workshop is about computer mediation in human communication and action. The proponents all look at mediation from different angles, but share the view that meaning is what mediation is about. We aim to dig beneath the surface and touch on the conception, construction, negotiation and evolution of meaning in and of technology, for producers and consumers, before and after technology is deployed. Mediation and meaning will thus allow us to discuss how different segments and perspectives in HCI research can be brought together to give us new insights about how people interact with technology.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boedker2015MediationMeaningHCI,
  author = {Bødker, Susanne and Bertelsen, Olav W. and Bannon, Liam and de Souza, Clarisse and Barbosa, Simone and Prates, Raquel},
  editor = {Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone and Fetter, Mirko and Gross, Tom and Palanque, Philippe and Winckler, Marco},
  title = {Mediation and Meaning in HCI},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Bamberg, Germany, September 14-18, 2015, Proceedings, Part IV},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {667--668},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-22723-8_93}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. T.; de Souza, C. & Tolmasquim, E. T.
My Program, My World: Insights from 1st-person Reflective Programming in EUD Education
End-User Development. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium, IS-EUD 2015, Springer International Publishing, 2015, 9083 , pp. 76-91

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
An important factor underlying the entire EUD enterprise is how to incorporate basic computer programming in school curricula. Rapidly increasing initiatives towards this goal have typically explored two kinds of abilities associated with learning how to program: logical problem solving and digital (multimedia) storytelling. In this paper we report on an exploratory qualitative study with a group of middle school children from a one-semester computational thinking acquisition class. We combined three technologies with which participants: (i) created a game; (ii) explored the representation of implicit and explicit meanings in their game; and (iii) created a scripted asynchronous Webbased conversation with their teacher about their game. We concluded that this combination can not only introduce new forms of 1st-person expression through software in basic education, but also and more importantly give teachers and learners a lead into program reflection, one of the most powerful concepts in programming and computing

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monteiro2015MyProgramMy,
  author = {Monteiro, I. T. and de Souza, C.S. and Tolmasquim, E. T.},
  title = {My Program, My World: Insights from 1st-person Reflective Programming in EUD Education},
  booktitle = {End-User Development. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium, IS-EUD 2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9083},
  pages = {76--91},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_6}, 
}
---
Müller, L.; Silveira, M. S. & de Souza, C. S.
Os Meus, Os Seus, Os Nossos: Reuso de Exemplo e a Autoexpressão de Alunos de Programação
Boscarioli, C. & Sampaio, A. L.(Eds.)
Anais do XIV Simpósio Brasileiro sobre Fatores Humanos em Sistemas Computacionais (IHC 2015), Siociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2015 , pp. 292-301

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Exemplos são comumente utilizados como base paraensino e aprendizado na área de programação de computadores. No entanto, vê-se que estudantes de programação (e até mesmo programadores experientes) negligenciam a etapa de compreensão do código e da mensagem que este código está passando, optando por um reuso e readaptação do mesmo para rápida e facilmente atingir seus objetivos. O presente trabalho investiga como alunos de programação usam exemplos em suas atividades e, em caso de reuso de código, como ocorre a apropriação da mensagem destes exemplos e como isto impacta em sua autoexpressão e na mensagem final que estão passando adiante através do programa.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Mueller2015OsMeusOs,
  author = {Luana Müller and Milene Selbach Silveira and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  editor = {Clodis Boscarioli and Andreia Libório Sampaio},
  title = {Os Meus, Os Seus, Os Nossos: Reuso de Exemplo e a Autoexpressão de Alunos de Programação},
  booktitle = {Anais do XIV Simpósio Brasileiro sobre Fatores Humanos em Sistemas Computacionais (IHC 2015)},
  publisher = {Siociedade Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {292--301},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286458709_Os_meus_os_seus_os_nossos_reuso_de_exemplo_e_a_autoexpressao_de_alunos_de_programacao}, 
}
---
Ferreira, J. J.; de Souza, C. S. & Cerqueira, R.
Why and How to Investigate Interaction Design of Software Development Tools
SBC Journal on Interactive Systems, 2015, 6 , pp. 48-65

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The existence of some relationship between the usability of software development tools and the quality of end users} interaction with the product these tools contribute to build would not be surprising. Should this be the case, a developer}s problematic use experience with these tools would increase the workload of HCI experts, whose aim is to promote high quality user experience with software products. Yet, this connection has not deserved much attention from researchers, and it is unclear how investigations should be conducted to verify if it is true. Our contribution in this paper is a first step in this direction. We propose an inspection method to characterize communicability and usability aspects of software modeling tools. By combining both aspects and articulating our analysis around tool, notations and people, we provide valuable conceptual links that, we argue, may in the long run of subsequent research contribute significantly to verify the (extent of the) relation between HCI quality of development tools and developed products.

BibTeX:
@article{Ferreira2015WhyHowInvestigate,
  author = {Ferreira, Juliana Jansen and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Cerqueira, Renato},
  title = {Why and How to Investigate Interaction Design of Software Development Tools},
  journal = {SBC Journal on Interactive Systems},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {6},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48--65},
  url = {http://www.seer.ufrgs.br/jis/article/view/55492/0}, 
}
---
Braz, P.; Felipe David, V.; Raposo, A.; Barbosa, S. & de Souza, C.
An Alternative Design Perspective for Technology Supporting Youngsters with Autism
Foundations of Augmented Cognition. Advancing Human Performance and Decision-Making through Adaptive Systems, Springer, 2014, 8534 , pp. 279-287

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
People with autism present several disabilities in communication, social interaction and behavioral fields. There is a wide variation among these individuals and it is essential to develop therapies and materials customized for them. There are many design approaches in Human-Computer Interaction, but most of them present some limitations for designing to this audience. We conducted a study using paper prototyping with children with autism in order to contribute to the design of software for them. In this paper, we report some limitations in using this technique and the need for customizing applications for the individual who will use them. Reflecting on these needs and analyzing approaches to interface design, we present and discuss a proposal for a design methodology that combines Meta-design and Semiotic Engineering.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Braz2014AlternativeDesignPerspective,
  author = {Braz, P. and Felipe David, V. and Raposo, A. and Barbosa, S.D.J. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {An Alternative Design Perspective for Technology Supporting Youngsters with Autism},
  booktitle = {Foundations of Augmented Cognition. Advancing Human Performance and Decision-Making through Adaptive Systems},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8534},
  pages = {279--287},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-07527-3_26}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Salgado, L.; Leitão, C. & Serra, M.
Cultural Appropriation of Computational Thinking Acquisition Research: Seeding Fields of Diversity
ITICSE 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education Conference, 2014 , pp. 117-122

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In this paper, we report the developments of a Computational Thinking Acquisition project carried out in pilot Brazilian schools. The project is a branch of a successful, more than a decade old project in the USA. We present and discuss the factors that led to specific cultural appropriation and diversification of the North American experience. In particular, we explain the kind of technology that has been developed in South America compared to the one developed and used in the USA, and propose that the lessons we have learned in the project}s short history in Brazil can already seed the reflection of IT and Education researchers.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2014CulturalAppropriationComputational,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Salgado, L.C. and Leitão, C.F. and Serra, M.M.},
  title = {Cultural Appropriation of Computational Thinking Acquisition Research: Seeding Fields of Diversity},
  booktitle = {ITICSE 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education Conference},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {117--122},
  doi = {10.1145/2591708.2591729}, 
}
---
Brandão, R.; de Souza, C. & Cerqueira, R.
Uma Infraestrutura de Captura & Acesso para Instrumentação de Avaliações Qualitativas de IHC
Leitão, C. & Maciel, C.(Eds.)
Proceedings of the 13th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Sociedade Brasileira de Computaccão, 2014 , pp. 197-206

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Registering, indexing and retrieving analysis activities on empirical data is a practical and conceptual challenge in qualitative research. The publication of analytical procedures and interpretation processes is a critical requirement for external researchers and other stakeholders to accept or refute qualitative analysis results, thereby promoting its reliability. In this paper, we present a case study using a Capture & Access infrastructure to instrument qualitative HCI evaluation activities. We present the documentation of two evaluation tasks, where experts used Semiotic Engineering methods and had their activities captured and made available in hypermedia documents. In conclusion, we highlight the value of the proposed technology as a tool for qualitative research and propose a number of items for a future work agenda in this field.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Brandao2014UmaInfraestruturade,
  author = {Brandão, Rafael and de Souza, Clarisse and Cerqueira, Renato},
  editor = {Carla Leitão and Cristiano Maciel},
  title = {Uma Infraestrutura de Captura & Acesso para Instrumentação de Avaliações Qualitativas de IHC},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {Sociedade Brasileira de Computaccão},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {197--206},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2738055.2738088}, 
}
---
Salgado, L.; Leitão, C. & de Souza, C.
A Journey through Cultures - Metaphors for Guiding the Design of Cross-Cultural Interactive Systems
Springer-Verlag, 2013

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
A Journey Through Cultures addresses one of the hottest topics in contemporary HCI: cultural diversity amongst users. For a number of years the HCI community has been investigating alternatives to enhance the design of cross-cultural systems. Most contributions to date have followed either a }design for each} or a }design for all} strategy. A Journey Through Cultures takes a very different approach. Proponents of CVM -- the Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors perspective -- the authors invite HCI practitioners to think of how to expose and communicate the idea of cultural diversity. A detailed case study is included which assesses the metaphorsâ potential in cross-cultural design and evaluation. The results show that cultural viewpoint metaphors have strong epistemic power, leveraged by a combination of theoretic foundations coming from Anthropology, Semiotics and the authorsâ own work in HCI and Semiotic Engineering. Luciana Salgado, Carla Leitão and Clarisse de Souza are members of SERG, the Semiotic Engineering Research Group at the Departamento de Informática of Rio de Janeiro}s Pontifical Catholic University (PUC-Rio).

BibTeX:
@book{Salgado2013JourneyCulturesMetaphors,
  author = {Salgado, L.C.C. and Leitão, C.F. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {A Journey through Cultures - Metaphors for Guiding the Design of Cross-Cultural Interactive Systems},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://www.springer.com/computer/hci/book/978-1-4471-4113-6},
  doi = {10.1007/978-1-4471-4114-3}, 
}
---
Ferreira, C. M. D.; Salgado, L. C. C. & de Souza, C.
A Vocabulary to Access Users' Cultural Perspectives in Human-computer Interaction
Kotze, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J. & Winckler, M.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013, Springer, 2013, 8120 , pp. 314-322

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents research carried out to explore the implications of giving users a specific vocabulary to express their perceptions and opinions about opportunities to make contact with cultural diversity in human-computer interaction. This two-step study is part of a broader research project that aims at investigating users' perceptions and reactions when interacting with cross-cultural systems. Our current findings point at the expressive power of the proposed vocabulary and the promising outcomes of using it in the interaction design cycle of cross-cultural systems.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ferreira2013VocabularyAccessUsers,
  author = {Ferreira, C. M. D. and Salgado, L. C. C. and de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {Kotze, P. and Marsden, G. and Lindgaard, G. and Wesson, J. and Winckler, M.},
  title = {A Vocabulary to Access Users' Cultural Perspectives in Human-computer Interaction},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8120},
  number = {PART 4},
  pages = {314--322},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-40498-6_24}, 
}
---
Ferreira, J. & de Souza, C.
Communicating Ideas in Computer-Supported Modeling Tasks: A Case Study with BPMN
Kurosu, M.(Ed.)
Human-Computer Interaction. Human-Centred Design Approaches, Methods, Tools, and Environments, Springer, 2013, 8004 , pp. 320-329

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The communication role of models in Software Engineering is widely acknowledged. Models tell model users what model builders propose. Computer-supported modeling (CSMod) traditionally concentrates on helping users build models with various kinds of notations. Although such focus on 'representation' is obviously important for the overall 'communication' goal, some design features in CSMod tools may be yet unexplored. This paper presents a study with the use of ARIS EXPRESS in modeling tasks with Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). We report on how we combined various methods to analyze the way in which this tool supports 'communication through models'. Our findings articulate semiotic and cognitive aspects of notations with evidence provided by study participants during tasks and interviews. Our contribution lies not only in the findings, and how CSMod design can evolve in relatively unexplored ways, but also in our methodology, which we believe can be used in similar contexts.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ferreira2013CommunicatingIdeasComputer,
  author = {Ferreira, J.J. and de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {Kurosu, Masaaki},
  title = {Communicating Ideas in Computer-Supported Modeling Tasks: A Case Study with BPMN},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction. Human-Centred Design Approaches, Methods, Tools, and Environments},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8004},
  number = {PART 1},
  pages = {320--329},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39232-0_36}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. T.; Tolmasquim, E. T. & de Souza, C. S.
Going Back and Forth in Metacommunication Threads
Proceedings of the 12th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Brazilian Computer Society, 2013 , pp. 102-111

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents an exploratory study about how savvy end users configure return points in mediated interactions with Web applications through WNH (Web Navigation Helper), a user agent that supports rephrasing, explanation, commentary and elaboration of interaction in scripted Web activities. The study is part of a long-term research on self-expression through software programming. Savvy users creating mediation dialogs for the benefit of other users (third parties) are actually engaged in a human-computer interaction (HCI) design process involved in end user development (EUD). The study shows that decisions about when, where, how and why to go back to previous points in the design of mediated conversation with WNH are very complex, even for savvy users. More importantly, we collected powerful evidence of the participants' interpretation of what interaction through WNH is all about. We believe that such evidence stands for their intuitions about HCI in a broader sense. The main contribution of the study is thus to illuminate aspects of EUD and HCI that haven't been discussed to-date and to propose questions for new kinds of investigation.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monteiro2013GoingBackForth,
  author = {Monteiro, Ingrid Teixeira and Tolmasquim, Eduardo Tiomno and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Going Back and Forth in Metacommunication Threads},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {102--111},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2577101.2577124}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O.; Barbosa, S.; Silveira, M. S.; de Souza, C. S.; Baranauskas, C.; Maciel, C.; Furtado, E.; Anacleto, J.; Melo, P. & Kujala, T.
HCI Community in Brazil—sweet 16!
interactions, ACM, 2013, 20 , pp. 80-81

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Back in 1996, a small group of Brazilian Ph.D. students attended CHI as student volunteers and were encouraged to find out who else was working with HCI in Brazil. In 1997 the first efforts to organize the Brazilian HCI community came about, with significant contributions from Richard Anderson, then SIGCHI}s chair of Local Chapters. In addition to identifying other people working in HCI, Brazilian HCI researchers created a webpage with their news and contact information and set up both a mailing list and a SIGCHI Prospective Local Chapter: BR-CHI. In 2000 these efforts culminated with the chartering of BR-CHI and the organization of the first national research workshop in HCI.

Sixteen years later, the community has consolidated and blossomed. The Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems (IHC) is an annual event. At recent symposiums we counted some 200 participants and about 100 full paper submissions, with a 30 percent acceptance rate. In 2002 the Brazilian Computer Society created a Special Commission on HCI, and its Executive Council (CEIHC) is responsible for the quality of IHC and for promoting the HCI field in Brazil. CEIHC has assigned members of the community to lead efforts in HCI education, research, and academia-industry relations in Brazil.

BibTeX:
@article{Prates2013HCICommunityBrazil—sweet,
  author = {Prates, Raquel O. and Barbosa, Simone and Silveira, Milene S. and de Souza, Clarisse S. and Baranauskas, Cecı́lia and Maciel, Cristiano and Furtado, Elizabeth and Anacleto, Junia and Melo, Paulo and Kujala, Tuomo},
  title = {HCI Community in Brazil—sweet 16!},
  journal = {interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20},
  number = {6},
  pages = {80--81},
  doi = {10.1145/2530983}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. T.; de Souza, C. & Leitão, C. F.
Metacommunication and Semiotic Engineering: Insights from a Study with Mediated HCI
Marcus, A.(Ed.)
Design, User Experience, and Usability. Design Philosophy, Methods, and Tools, Springer, 2013, 8012 , pp. 115-124

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Semiotic perspectives on HCI take human-computer interaction as a special case of computer-mediated human communication. Through the interface, systems designers communicate to users their design vision as well as how the system can or should be used for a variety of purposes. To date, there hasn't been enough empirical research in HCI exploring this complex phenomenon. This paper reports an empirical research about metacommunication in HCI and discusses how and why semiotically-inspired research can contribute to advance knowledge in this field. The aim of the discussion is to motivate and justify more research projects in this interdisciplinary territory and to present semiotic engineering concepts and tools that can be used to carry them out.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monteiro2013MetacommunicationSemioticEngineering,
  author = {Monteiro, I. T. and de Souza, C.S. and Leitão, C. F.},
  editor = {Marcus, Aaron},
  title = {Metacommunication and Semiotic Engineering: Insights from a Study with Mediated HCI},
  booktitle = {Design, User Experience, and Usability. Design Philosophy, Methods, and Tools},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8012},
  number = {PART 1},
  pages = {115--124},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39229-0_14}, 
}
---
Mota, M.; Monteiro, I.; Ferreira, J.; Slaviero, C. & de Souza, C.
On Signifying the Complexity of Inter-Agent Relations in Agentsheets Games and Simulations
SIGDOC 2013 - Proceedings of the 31st ACM International Conference on Design of Communication, ACM, 2013 , pp. 133-142

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper reports the results of an empirical study about the semiotic engineering of signs of complexity for live documentation of games and simulations built with a visual programming learning environment. The study highlights the essence of the semiotic engineering process and shows how its outcome has been received by a group of users who can speak for a large portion of the live documentation system}s user population. It also shows how the communication of complexity is, in and of itself, a major design challenge, especially when mastering complexity is one of the prime purposes of the documented object. Because the study was carried out in the context of a live documentation system, its conclusions can also illustrate how to conduct semiotically-inspired interaction design.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Mota2013SignifyingComplexityInter,
  author = {Mota, M.P. and Monteiro, I.T. and Ferreira, J.J. and Slaviero, C. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {On Signifying the Complexity of Inter-Agent Relations in Agentsheets Games and Simulations},
  booktitle = {SIGDOC 2013 - Proceedings of the 31st ACM International Conference on Design of Communication},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {133--142},
  doi = {10.1145/2507065.2507070}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
Semiotic Perspectives on Interactive Languages for Life on the Screen
Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 2013, 24 , pp. 218-221

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Cross-disciplinary research involving semiotics and computer science is rare. With the Web 2.0, contemporary activities of users can be properly described as real 'life on the screen'. One of the challenges for the design of interactive languages is to support these activities and to express the much wider variety of meanings that users want to exchange through and with software. As the discipline whose aim is to investigate meanings, through representation and interpretation processes, semiotics is remarkably well-positioned to contribute with new knowledge in our field. This viewpoint article examines the reasons why in spite of this positioning, semiotics remains unpopular among researchers interested in interactive computer languages. In particular, it proposes that a semiotic approach can help us think about computer languages to represent our individual and collective }s elves' on the screen.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2013SemioticPerspectivesInteractive,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Semiotic Perspectives on Interactive Languages for Life on the Screen},
  journal = {Journal of Visual Languages and Computing},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {24},
  number = {3},
  pages = {218--221},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jvlc.2013.03.002}, 
}
---
Leitão, C. F.; Silveira, M. S. & de Souza, C. S.
Uma Introdução à Engenharia Semiótica: Conceitos e Métodos
Proceedings of the 12th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Brazilian Computer Society, 2013 , pp. 356-358

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Este minicurso apresenta uma introdução da Engenharia Semiótica, teoria de IHC criada no Brasil. Centrada nos fenômenos de significação e comunicação, ela é particularmente atraente para as aplicações interativas contemporâneas. O minicurso visa possibilitar aos participantes a aquisição de uma sólida visão de conjunto da ontologia e dos métodos propostos pela teoria, o que lhes facultará aprofundar conhecimentos, conforme suas necessidades ou interesses. É dirigido tanto para profissionais de mercado quanto para estudantes e pesquisadores, incluindo no programa de 6 horas atividades práticas para a fixação de conceitos.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leitao2013UmaIntroducaoa,
  author = {Leitão, Carla Faria and Silveira, Milene Selbach and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Uma Introdução à Engenharia Semiótica: Conceitos e Métodos},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {356--358},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2577101.2577200}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. T.; Alves, A. S. & de Souza, C.
Using Mediated Communication to Teach Vocational Concepts to Deaf Users
tephanidis , C. & Antona, M.(Eds.)
Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services for Quality of Life, Springer, 2013, 8011 , pp. 213-222

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents an in-depth study on how a small group of deaf users reacted while learning abstract vocational concepts in the domain of librarianship, using mediated interaction supported by WNH, a Web Navigation Helper. WNH}s purpose is to allow helpers to create mediation dialogs to enable or facilitate helpees' online interaction with Web pages. In our study, deaf employees at a Brazilian library were taught a lesson especially designed for WNH by a deaf librarian who is fluent in Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) and Portuguese. Among the results we were able to see the huge gaps between what a library is for our deaf participants and what it is for non-deaf library professionals and customers. We could also appreciate the role of technologies like WNH in preparing deaf users to interact with Web systems in professional settings.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monteiro2013UsingMediatedCommunication,
  author = {Monteiro, I. T. and Alves, A. S. and de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {tephanidis, Constantine and Antona, Margherita},
  title = {Using Mediated Communication to Teach Vocational Concepts to Deaf Users},
  booktitle = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services for Quality of Life},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8011},
  number = {PART 3},
  pages = {213--222},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39194-1-25}, 
}
---
Maia, R.; Cerqueira, R.; de Souza, C. & Guisasola-Gorham, T.
A Qualitative Human-Centric Evaluation of Flexibility in Middleware Implementations
Empirical Software Engineering, 2012, 17 , pp. 166-199

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Today middleware is much more powerful, more reliable and faster than it used to be. Nevertheless, for the application developer, the complexity of using middleware platforms has increased accordingly. The volume and variety of application contexts that current middleware technologies have to support require that developers be able to anticipate the widest possible range of execution environments, desired and undesired effects of different programming strategies, handling procedures for runtime errors, and so on. This paper shows how a generic framework designed to evaluate the usability of notations (the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations Framework, or CDN) has been instantiated and used to analyze the cognitive challenges involved in adapting middleware platforms. This human-centric perspective allowed us to achieve novel results compared to existing middleware evaluation research, typically centered around system performance metrics. The focus of our study is on the process of adapting middleware implementations, rather than in the end product of this activity. Our main contributions are twofold. First, we describe a qualitative CDN-based method to analyze the cognitive effort made by programmers while adapting middleware implementations. And second, we show how two platforms designed for flexibility have been compared, suggesting that certain programming language design features might be particularly helpful for developers.

BibTeX:
@article{Maia2012QualitativeHumanCentric,
  author = {Maia, R. and Cerqueira, R. and de Souza, C.S. and Guisasola-Gorham, T.},
  title = {A Qualitative Human-Centric Evaluation of Flexibility in Middleware Implementations},
  journal = {Empirical Software Engineering},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {166--199},
  doi = {10.1007/s10664-011-9167-7}, 
}
---
Bim, S.; Leitão, C. & de Souza, C.
Can the Teaching of HCI Contribute for the Learning of Computer Science? The Case of Semiotic Engineering Methods
Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems IHC'2012, SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computaccão / ACM Association for Computing Machinery, 2012, I , pp. 185-194

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative study carried out to investigate the teaching and learning of Semiotic Engineering methods, namely the Semiotic Inspection and the Communicability Evaluation methods. We identified three kinds of abilities that are necessary for a better learning and application of these methods: systematic interpretation, abstraction and wide perspective. We have also identified the relation among these three abilities. In the triangulation step of the research we found that these abilities are also recurrently invoked as necessary to the learning of other Computer Science subjects such as programming, induction, and object-oriented design and development. In conclusion, we suggest that strategies used to teach Semiotic Engineering methods can explicitly explore the connections with other contents in the Computer Science curriculum and thus begin to reap mutual benefits.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bim2012CanTeachingHCI,
  author = {Bim, S.A. and Leitão, C.F. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Can the Teaching of HCI Contribute for the Learning of Computer Science? The Case of Semiotic Engineering Methods},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems IHC'2012},
  publisher = {SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computaccão / ACM Association for Computing Machinery},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {I},
  pages = {185--194},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2393536.2393564}, 
}
---
Ferreira, J.; de Souza, C.; Salgado, L.; Slaviero, C.; Leitão, C. & Moreira, F.
Combining Cognitive, Semiotic and Discourse Analysis to Explore the Power of Notations in Visual Programming
2012 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC), IEEE, 2012 , pp. 101-108

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Using game design and programming to foster computational thinking acquisition has proved to be a successful strategy in recent years. In previous research with AgentSheets, we concluded that the semiotic richness of this visual programming environment, specifically designed to support computational thinking acquisition, could be explored more extensively to the benefit of learners. In particular, we realized that there are some additional representations of AgentSheets games and simulations that are not presented as programming tools in the interface, and yet they communicate new relevant meanings to the users. This paper reports on research where we artificially introduced such representations in a small follow-up experiment with selected participants from our previous research experiment. Our goal was to investigate the impact of such additional representations on program comprehension and modification tasks. To this end we contrasted empirical evidence of their performance in the two tasks with their verbal account of experience with AgentSheets. We used a combination of discourse analysis and inspections using Semiotic Engineering methods and the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations framework. Our findings go in two directions. First, we observed that additional representations have allowed participants to expand and correct previous learning. Therefore such representations can support new teaching strategies in computational thinking acquisition programs with AgentSheets. Second, we learned that the combination of methods we used to analyze empirical data - discourse analysis with semiotic and cognitive inspection techniques - can be used systematically in other research contexts, holding the promise of insightful results.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ferreira2012CombiningCognitiveSemiotic,
  author = {Ferreira, J.J. and de Souza, C.S. and Salgado, L.C.C. and Slaviero, C. and Leitão, C.F. and Moreira, F.F.},
  title = {Combining Cognitive, Semiotic and Discourse Analysis to Explore the Power of Notations in Visual Programming},
  booktitle = {2012 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC)},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {101--108},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6344492&isnumber=6344456},
  doi = {10.1109/VLHCC.2012.6344492}, 
}
---
Mota, M.; Faria, L. & de Souza, C.
Documentation Comes to Life in Computational Thinking Acquisition with Agentsheets
Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems IHC'2012, SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação / ACM Association for Computing Machinery, 2012, I , pp. 151-160

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper is about the use of live documentation in Computational Thinking Acquisition (CTA) programs with AgentSheets. AgentSheets is a visual programming environment to build games. Based on previous studies showing that semiotic relations among visual game elements could be further explored to the benefit of the learners, we designed PoliFacets, a Web extension to AgentSheets cast as a live conversational document. With it, teachers and learners can follow different threads of conversation about (multiple representations of) game elements and relations between them. We present a qualitative evaluation study of PoliFacets with two experienced AgentSheets instructors and three school teachers trained to coach students in CTA programs. Findings show that although our system has not yet completely fulfilled our design intent, it has led participants to gain relevant insights about their teaching and learning, as well as to articulating doubts and misunderstandings that otherwise could have gone unnoticed.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Mota2012DocumentationComesLife,
  author = {Mota, M.P. and Faria, L.S. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Documentation Comes to Life in Computational Thinking Acquisition with Agentsheets},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems IHC'2012},
  publisher = {SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação / ACM Association for Computing Machinery},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {I},
  pages = {151--160},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2393536.2393558}, 
}
---
Afonso, L.; Cerqueira, R. & de Souza, C.
Evaluating Application Programming Interfaces as Communication Artefacts
Proceedings of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group Annual Conference 2012 (PPIG'2012), The Psychology of Programming Interest Group, 2012 , pp. 151-162

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Application programming interfaces (APIs) allow the reuse of software artefacts by providing abstractions to other software layers, and their design is critical to enable the effective use of the underlying software and avoid programming errors. As such, the role of an API designer should be strengthened in any software project that has reuse among its goals. Also, we should be able to evaluate the effectiveness of an API in communicating its design to programmers and identify the tools and techniques that help the designers to accomplish this task, so that APIs may be easier to understand and use. This paper describes a work in progress that proposes the use of a combined semiotic and cognitive method to evaluate APIs as an artefact mediating the communication process between designers and programmers, and also aims to investigate some possibilities of enhancing this communication.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Afonso2012EvaluatingApplicationProgramming,
  author = {Afonso, L.M. and Cerqueira, R.F.G. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Evaluating Application Programming Interfaces as Communication Artefacts},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group Annual Conference 2012 (PPIG'2012)},
  publisher = {The Psychology of Programming Interest Group},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {151--162},
  url = {https://ppig.org/files/2012-PPIG-24th-Afonso.pdf}, 
}
---
Baranauskas, M. C. C.; de Souza, C. S. & Pereira, R.
GrandIHC-Br: Prospecção de Grandes Desafios de Pesquisa Em Interação Humano-Computador no Brasil
Companion Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Brazilian Computer Society, 2012 , pp. 63-64

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
When the IHC2012 Chairs called us to organize a panel to discuss advances in the SBC Challenges, in particular Challenge n. 4, we were urged to }hear} the HCI community in a more systematic and more localized way, about what this community takes to be an HCI Challenge in the broader context of Brazilian Grand Challenges in Computing. GranDIHC-BR is our proposal to prospect during IHC2012 research questions in the field of Human-Computer Interaction that will be important to science and society over a period of 10 years, extending the reach of the SBC Challenge 4.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Baranauskas2012GrandIHCBrProspeccao,
  author = {Baranauskas, M. Cecilia C. and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Pereira, Roberto},
  title = {GrandIHC-Br: Prospecção de Grandes Desafios de Pesquisa Em Interação Humano-Computador no Brasil},
  booktitle = {Companion Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {63--64},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2400076.2400103}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
HCI Education in Computer Science: Reflections on 14 Years of Experience | Ensino de IHC na Computação: Reflexões Sobre 14 Anos de Experiência
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2012, 967 , pp. 1-2

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The purpose of this presentation is to share with the interested audience some reflections after 14 years of teaching HCI in undergraduate programs in Computer Engineering, Information Systems and Computer Science at the Department of Informatics of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. In particular, I will discuss the positioning of HCI in Informatics and the challenges of teaching it in such context. As an interdisciplinary area it must be learned, taught, researched and applied keeping in mind not only this positioning but also its relations with various other disciplines such as Ergonomics and Design, Psychology, Social Communication and many others.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2012HCIEducationComputer,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {HCI Education in Computer Science: Reflections on 14 Years of Experience | Ensino de IHC na Computação: Reflexões Sobre 14 Anos de Experiência},
  booktitle = {CEUR Workshop Proceedings},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {967},
  pages = {1--2},
  url = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-967/invited1.pdf}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
Semiotics
25
Soegaard, M. & Dam, R.(Eds.)
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, The Interaction Design Foundation, 2012 , pp. 1-35

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This chapter covers why and how Semiotics can help advance some of the major goals of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and be useful when designing interactive products. It begins with brief definitions and explanations of a few central concepts in Semiotics. This is followed by a discussion of harder challenges involved in bringing Semiotics into the domain of HCI research and the consequences of viewing computers as media. Following Semiotic Engineering concepts, which we have been developing and using for two decades now, we then revisit computer-mediated communication in view of 21st century literacy issues. First, we show that basic computing skills exhibited by contemporary users are in fact semiotic engineering abilities of the same sort as required from professional designers. Then we show how these skills can leverage an individualâs participation in a variety of social processes. In conclusion, the chapter presents our personal answer to the question that most readers certainly have in mind: ‘So, whatâs in it for me?â

BibTeX:
@inbook{Souza2012Semiotics,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  chapter = {25},
  editor = {Soegaard, M. and Dam, R.F.},
  title = {Semiotics},
  booktitle = {The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction},
  publisher = {The Interaction Design Foundation},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1--35},
  url = {http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html}, 
}
---
Soares Neto, C.; Soares, L. & de Souza, C.
Tal - Template Authoring Language
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, 2012, 18 , pp. 185-199

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents TAL (Template Authoring Language), an authoring language for hypermedia document templates. Templates describe document families with structural or semantic similarities among them. TAL supports the description of templates independently of the target hypermedia authoring language. The paper also presents a TAL processor that generates complete hypermedia documents taking as input a template specification in TAL and a data file with the information that makes that document particular in its family.

BibTeX:
@article{SoaresNeto2012TalTemplateAuthoring,
  author = {Soares Neto, C.S. and Soares, L.F.G. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Tal - Template Authoring Language},
  journal = {Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {18},
  number = {3},
  pages = {185--199},
  doi = {10.1007/s13173-012-0073-7}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. & de Souza, C.
The Representation of Self in Mediated Interaction with Computers
Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems IHC'2012, SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação / ACM Association for Computing Machinery, 2012, I , pp. 219-228

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
According to the computers as media perspective, all kinds of software, whether created by expert programmers or end users, carry an implicit or explicit representation of their creators. This paper discusses the representation of the user}s self in a study with the Web Navigation Helper (WNH), a user agent designed to support Web navigation through mediation dialogs. In our study, school teachers built mediation dialogs to orient their students while navigating proposed Websites. Our findings show how this specific kind of mediation technology communicated (intentional or unintentional) self-representation and supported self-expression. They also provide insights into how similar mediation technologies can be used in the broader context of computer-supported social participation.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monteiro2012RepresentationSelfMediated,
  author = {Monteiro, I.T. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {The Representation of Self in Mediated Interaction with Computers},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems IHC'2012},
  publisher = {SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação / ACM Association for Computing Machinery},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {I},
  pages = {219--228},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2393536.2393569}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
The Semiotic Turn
Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 2012, 23 , pp. 116-119

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper reports the author}s personal collaboration with Piero Mussio. It begins with an analysis of Mussio}s increasing involvement with semiotic concepts while working with visual languages. In conclusion, the author proposes follow-up questions, in continuation to an ongoing intellectual conversation that current and future researchers may help to sustain.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2012SemioticTurn,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {The Semiotic Turn},
  journal = {Journal of Visual Languages and Computing},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {23},
  number = {2},
  pages = {116--119},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1045926X11000796},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jvlc.2011.11.008}, 
}
---
Barbosa, S. & de Souza, C.
Are HCI Researchers an Endangered Species in Brazil?
interactions, 2011, 18 , pp. 69-71

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Public policy increasingly plays a role in influencing the work that we do as HCI researchers, interaction designers, and practitioners. }Public policy} is a broad term that includes both government policy and policy within non-governmental organizations, such as standards bodies. The Interacting with Public Policy forum focuses on topics at the intersection of human-computer interaction and public policy.

BibTeX:
@article{Barbosa2011AreHCIResearchers,
  author = {Barbosa, S.D.J. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Are HCI Researchers an Endangered Species in Brazil?},
  journal = {interactions},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18},
  number = {3},
  pages = {69--71},
  doi = {10.1145/1962438.1962454}, 
}
---
Monteiro, I. M. & de Souza, C. S.
Embedded Cultural Features in the Design of an Accessibility Agent for the Web
Stephanidis, C.(Ed.)
Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and eInclusion: 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, 6765 , pp. 295-304

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents the Web Navigation Helper (WNH), an interface agent for users with special needs originally developed for Brazilian users. WNH mediates scripted interaction with web sites, by providing alternative dialogs with appropriate style, structure, etc. The paper reports the results of qualitative empirical studies done at the early design stages. In particular, it shows how our design vision changed when findings from initial studies revealed that the technology we were about to develop was implicitly guided by a sociability model that was not prevalent in the Brazilian culture. The main contributions of the paper are to expose the process by which we became aware of cultural factors affecting the design of accessibility agents, and to propose a kind of technology that may be adopted in cultures whose sociability models are based on personal relations with friends and family members.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Monteiro2011EmbeddedCulturalFeatures,
  author = {Monteiro, Ingrid Monteiro and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  editor = {Stephanidis, Constantine},
  title = {Embedded Cultural Features in the Design of an Accessibility Agent for the Web},
  booktitle = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and eInclusion: 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6765},
  pages = {295--304},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-21672-5_33}, 
}
---
Salgado, L.; de Souza, C. & Leitão, C.
On the Epistemic Nature of Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors
Proceedings of the 10th Brazilian Symposium on on Human Factors in Computing Systems and the 5th Latin American Conference on Human-Computer Interaction IHC+CLIHC '2011, SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação / ACM Association for Computing Machinery, 2011 , pp. 23-32

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents the results of a in-depth qualitative study to investigate if and how our previously proposed Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors (CVM) can support practitioners in assessing the quality of HCI design alternatives. The results of the study underline the epistemic value of CVM in cross-cultural system design processes. The metaphors have not only helped participants to organize their thinking about how cultural diversity is exposed and communicated through systems interfaces, but also to build new knowledge and understanding about culture itself.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Salgado2011EpistemicNatureCultural,
  author = {Salgado, L.C.C. and de Souza, C.S. and Leitão, C.F.},
  title = {On the Epistemic Nature of Cultural Viewpoint Metaphors},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th Brazilian Symposium on on Human Factors in Computing Systems and the 5th Latin American Conference on Human-Computer Interaction IHC+CLIHC '2011},
  publisher = {SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação / ACM Association for Computing Machinery},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {23--32},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2254436.2254443}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Garcia, A.; Slaviero, C.; Pinto, H. & Repenning, A.
Semiotic Traces of Computational Thinking Acquisition
Costabile, M.; Dittrich, Y.; Fischer, G.; Piccinno, A.; Costabile, M.; Dittrich, Y.; Fischer, G. & Piccinno, A.(Eds.)
End-User Development - Proceedings of the Third international conference on End-user development IS/EUD'2011, Springer-Verlag, 2011, 6654 , pp. 155-170

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Computational thinking involves many different abilities, including being able to represent real and imaginary worlds in highly constrained computer languages. These typically support very selective kinds of perspectives, abstractions and articulation compared to the unlimited possibilities provided by natural languages. This paper reports findings from a qualitative empirical study with novice programmers, carried out with AgentSheets in a Brazilian public school. The driving research question was: How do meanings expressed in natural language narratives relate to computational constructs expressed in programs produced by novices? We used semiotic and linguistic analysis to compare meaning representations in natural and artificial texts (game descriptions in Brazilian Portuguese and Visual AgenTalk code). We looked for recurring relations and what they might mean in the context of computational thinking education. Our findings suggest that the semiotic richness of AgentSheets can be explored to introduce different aspects of computational thinking in principled and theoretically-informed ways.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2011SemioticTracesComputational,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Garcia, A.C.B. and Slaviero, C. and Pinto, H. and Repenning, A.},
  editor = {Costabile, MariaFrancesca and Dittrich, Yvonne and Fischer, Gerhard and Piccinno, Antonio and Costabile, MariaFrancesca and Dittrich, Yvonne and Fischer, Gerhard and Piccinno, Antonio},
  title = {Semiotic Traces of Computational Thinking Acquisition},
  booktitle = {End-User Development - Proceedings of the Third international conference on End-user development IS/EUD'2011},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6654},
  pages = {155--170},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-21530-8_13}, 
}
---
Salgado, L.; de Souza, C. & Leitão, C.
Using Metaphors to Explore Cultural Perspectives in Cross-Cultural Design
Rau, P. & Rau, P.(Eds.)
HCI International 2011 / Internationalization, Design and Global Development, 2011, Orlando, Florida. Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Internationalization, design and global development (IDGD'11)., Springer, 2011, 6775 , pp. 94-103

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
We have proposed five cultural viewpoint metaphors to help designers that wish to encourage and support cross-cultural HCI contacts. In this paper we present the main results of an experiment carried out to assess the potential of these metaphors in designing cross-cultural systems. Six HCI designers, with different cultural backgrounds, were then asked to create re-design alternatives for a real website guided by the metaphors. As a result, the experiment showed the epistemic effect of the metaphors on cross-cultural design, i. e. as a means to build new knowledge and understanding.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Salgado2011UsingMetaphorsExplore,
  author = {Salgado, L.C.C. and de Souza, C.S. and Leitão, C.F.},
  editor = {Rau, P.L.Patrick and Rau, P.L.Patrick},
  title = {Using Metaphors to Explore Cultural Perspectives in Cross-Cultural Design},
  booktitle = {HCI International 2011 / Internationalization, Design and Global Development, 2011, Orlando, Florida. Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Internationalization, design and global development (IDGD'11).},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6775},
  pages = {94--103},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-21660-2_11}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Leitão, C.; Prates, R.; Amélia Bim, S. & da Silva, E.
Can Inspection Methods Generate Valid New Knowledge in HCI? the Case of Semiotic Inspection
International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 2010, 68 , pp. 22-40

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
HCI evaluation methods tend to be proposed and used to verify the interactive qualities of specific systems and design strategies. A discussion about the scientific merits of such methods to advance knowledge in HCI as a field is very rare, although much needed. This paper shows that, under certain conditions, inspection methods can be safely used in scientific research in HCI and extend their advantages beyond the territory of professional practice. Taking the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM) as an example, we argue that its interpretive results are objective, can be validated, and produce scientific knowledge comparable to that generated by more widely accepted methods.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2010CanInspectionMethods,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Leitão, C.F. and Prates, R.O. and Amélia Bim, S. and da Silva, E.J.},
  title = {Can Inspection Methods Generate Valid New Knowledge in HCI? the Case of Semiotic Inspection},
  journal = {International Journal of Human Computer Studies},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {68},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {22--40},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.08.006}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Monteiro, I. & Intrator, C.
Questões Científicas, Técnicas e Éticas Do Desafio IV: Reflexões Sobre um Assistente para a Navegação na Web
Anais do XXXVII SEMISH, SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2010 , pp. 463-477

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents research on web navigation helpers aimed at users with different kinds of special needs. We discuss scientific and technical findings from empirical experiments we have done, and comment on ethical dimensions of Grand Challenge IV, posed by the Brazilian Computer Society for 2006-2016.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2010QuestoesCientificasTecnicas,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Monteiro, I.T. and Intrator, C.},
  title = {Questões Científicas, Técnicas e Éticas Do Desafio IV: Reflexões Sobre um Assistente para a Navegação na Web},
  booktitle = {Anais do XXXVII SEMISH},
  publisher = {SBC Sociedade Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {463--477},
  doi = {10/anais}, 
}
---
Soares Neto, C.; Soares, L. & de Souza, C.
Tal: Template Authoring Language for Hypermedia Documents | Tal - Linguagem para Autoria de Templates de Documentos Hipermídia
WebMedia 2010 - Anais de Artigos Completos do XVI Simposio Brasileiro de Sistemas Multimidia e Web, 2010 , pp. 147-154

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents TAL (Template Authoring Language), an authoring language for hypermedia document templates. Templates describe document families that are structurally or semantically similar among them. TAL enables the description of a template independently of the target hypermedia authoring language. The paper also presents a TAL processor that generates complete hypermedia documents taking as input the template specification in TAL and a data file with the information that makes that document unique in its family.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SoaresNeto2010TalTemplateAuthoring,
  author = {Soares Neto, C.S. and Soares, L.F.G. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Tal: Template Authoring Language for Hypermedia Documents | Tal - Linguagem para Autoria de Templates de Documentos Hipermídia},
  booktitle = {WebMedia 2010 - Anais de Artigos Completos do XVI Simposio Brasileiro de Sistemas Multimidia e Web},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {147--154}, 
}
---
Soares Neto, C.; Soares, L. & de Souza, C.
The Nested Context Language Reuse Features
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, 2010, 16 , pp. 229-245

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
NCL, the standard declarative language of the Brazilian Terrestrial Digital TV System and ITU-T Recommendation for IPTV Services, provides a high level of reuse in the design of hypermedia applications. In this paper we detail how its design and conceptual model have succeeded in supporting reuse at a declarative level. NCL supports not only static but also running code reuse. It also allows for reuse inside applications, reuse between applications, and reuse of code spans stored in external libraries. For a specification language to promote reuse, however, it must have a number of usability merits. Aspects of NCL usability are thus analyzed with the Cognitive Dimensions of Notation framework.

BibTeX:
@article{SoaresNeto2010NestedContextLanguage,
  author = {Soares Neto, C.S. and Soares, L.F.G. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {The Nested Context Language Reuse Features},
  journal = {Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {16},
  number = {4},
  pages = {229--245},
  doi = {10.1007/s13173-010-0017-z}, 
}
---
Salgado, L.; de Souza, C. & Leitão, C.
Conceptual Metaphors for Designing Multi-Cultural Applications
2009 Latin American Web Congress - Joint LA-WEB/CLIHC Conference, 2009 , pp. 105-111

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper proposes a set of conceptual metaphors for the design of multi-cultural systems. The work is part of a long-term study to adapt the International Children}s Digital Library for use in a Brazilian context. Results from previous studies along with Semiotic Engineering concepts have led us to propose five multi-cultural design metaphors to guide different communicative strategies that affect both designer-to-user communication and user-system communication.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Salgado2009ConceptualMetaphorsDesigning,
  author = {Salgado, L.C.C. and de Souza, C.S. and Leitão, C.F.},
  title = {Conceptual Metaphors for Designing Multi-Cultural Applications},
  booktitle = {2009 Latin American Web Congress - Joint LA-WEB/CLIHC Conference},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {105--111},
  doi = {10.1109/LA-WEB.2009.17}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S. & Leitão, C. F.
Semiotic Engineering Methods for Scientific Research in HCI
Morgan & Claypool, 2009, 2

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Discusses how semiotic inspection method and communicability evaluation method, which are both qualitative methods, can also be used in scientific contexts to generate knowledge about human-computer interaction. Introduction; Essence of Semiotic Engineering; Semiotic Engineering Methods; Case Study with Audacity; Lessons Learned with Semiotic Engineering Methods; The Near Future of Semiotic Engineering. [from Worldcat.org]

BibTeX:
@book{Souza2009SemioticEngineeringMethods,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Carla Faria Leitão},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering Methods for Scientific Research in HCI},
  publisher = {Morgan & Claypool},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {2},
  doi = {10.2200/S00173ED1V01Y200901HCI002}, 
}
---
Valente, L.; de Souza, C. & Feijó, B.
Turn Off the Graphics: Designing Non-Visual Interfaces for Mobile Phone Games
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, 2009, 15 , pp. 45-58

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Mobile phones are a widespread platform for ICT applications because they are highly pervasive in contemporary society. Hence, we can think of mobile gaming as a serious candidate to being a prominent form of entertainment in the near future. However, most games (for computers, console and mobile devices) make extensive use of the visual medium, which tends to exclude visually-impaired users from the play. While mobile gaming could potentially reach many visually-impaired users, who are very familiar with this technology, currently there seems to be only very few alternatives for this community. In an attempt to explore new interactive possibilities for such users, this work presents an initial study on non-visual interfaces for mobile phone games. It is based on Semiotic Engineering principles, emphasizing communication through aural, tactile and gestural signs, and deliberately excluding visual information. Results include a number of issues that can be incorporated to a wider research agenda on mobile gaming accessibility, both for the visually-impaired and sighted.

BibTeX:
@article{Valente2009TurnGraphicsDesigning,
  author = {Valente, L. and de Souza, C.S. and Feijó, B.},
  title = {Turn Off the Graphics: Designing Non-Visual Interfaces for Mobile Phone Games},
  journal = {Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {15},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45--58}, 
}
---
Sacramento, V.; Endler, M. & de Souza, C.
A Privacy Service for Location-based Collaboration among Mobile Users
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, 2008, 14 , pp. 41-57

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The potential loss of privacy due to the use of location-based applications may be one of the greatest obstacles to their wider acceptance. Nevertheless, most research about privacy management to-date has not taken into consideration the complexity in the utilization of collaborative applications that may require users' location sharing among participants. In this article, we propose a privacy service that helps users to maintain their privacy policy in a flexible and incremental way. We also carried out a qualitative evaluation study whose results illustrate several challenges that should be handled in the design of such a service.

BibTeX:
@article{Sacramento2008PrivacyServiceLocation,
  author = {Sacramento, V. and Endler, M. and de Souza, C.},
  title = {A Privacy Service for Location-based Collaboration among Mobile Users},
  journal = {Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {41--57}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Laffon, R. F. & Leitão, C. F.
Communicability in Multicultural Contexts: A Study with the International Children}s Digital Library
Forbrig, P.; Paternò, F. & Pejtersen, A. M.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction Symposium. IFIP 20th World Computer Congress, Proceedings of the 1st TC 13 Human-Computer Interaction Symposium (HCIS 2008), Springer US, 2008, 272 , pp. 129-142

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents some contributions of semiotic engineering to the identification of cultural issues involved in the design and evaluation of multicultural systems (i.e. systems designed for users from different cultures). We carried out a communicability evaluation of the International Children}s Digital Library. Participants of test sessions had different nationalities and spoke different native languages. We paid special attention to communicability problems stemming from language understanding and language use issues. Our goal was not to make generalizations from our findings, but rather to uncover and understand some of the users' experience with multicultural systems. In addition to this understanding, we have gained relevant insights to inform the cultural adaptation of ICDL to the Brazilian context, and believe that they can be useful in other cultural contexts as well.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2008CommunicabilityMulticulturalContexts,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Laffon, R. F. and Leitão, C. F.},
  editor = {Peter Forbrig and Fabio Paternò and Annelise Mark Pejtersen},
  title = {Communicability in Multicultural Contexts: A Study with the International Children}s Digital Library},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction Symposium. IFIP 20th World Computer Congress, Proceedings of the 1st TC 13 Human-Computer Interaction Symposium (HCIS 2008)},
  publisher = {Springer US},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {272},
  pages = {129--142},
  doi = {10.1007/978-0-387-09678-0_12}, 
}
---
Soares Neto, C. d. S.; de Souza, C. S. & Soares, L. F. G.
Linguagens Computacionais como Interfaces: Um Estudo com Nested Context Language
Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2008 , pp. 166-175

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents an empirical study about the Nested Context Language (NCL), which is a language developed to create multimedia documents and Interactive Digital TV (IDTV) applications for the Brazilian system. The goal was to obtain indicators of NCL usability in the generation of content for IDTV, since this language plays the role of interface language for users. Through data collected on forms filled by 220 students from various classes of training courses conducted in some states of Brazil and later analysis by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, some aspects were found where the NCL profile can and should be improved in order to ease the activities of content creators for IDTV, who have a heterogeneous profile and are not necessarily familiar with computer programming.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SoaresNeto2008LinguagensComputacionaiscomo,
  author = {Soares Neto, Carlos de Salles and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Soares, Luiz Fernando Gomes},
  title = {Linguagens Computacionais como Interfaces: Um Estudo com Nested Context Language},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {Sociedade Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {166--175},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1497470.1497489}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
Missing Links in the Rhetoric of Activity Theory
Interacting with Computers, 2008, 20 , pp. 267-271

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This commentary on Victor González}s proposal to introduce the notion of working spheres/engagements in the traditional activity hierarchy adopts a semiotic perspective. It suggests that the benefit of the proposed introduction is rhetorical rather than strictly conceptual. Thus, the commentary focuses on the importance of distinguishing between models (or descriptions) of activities and of }discourse about} activities. It also illustrates some kinds of questions that might be asked and answered by virtue of such a distinction.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2008MissingLinksRhetoric,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Missing Links in the Rhetoric of Activity Theory},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {267--271},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2007.07.006}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. & Cypher, A.
Semiotic Engineering in Practice: Redesigning the Coscripter Interface
Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces AVI, ACM, 2008 , pp. 165-172

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Semiotic Engineering uses semiotic theories to characterize human-computer interaction and support research and development of interactive systems. In order to show the value of Semiotic Engineering in design, we illustrate how semiotic concepts have been used in the analysis and generation of redesign alternatives for a web browser-based program called CoScripter. We also discuss how specific perspectives and expectations about the design process can increase the benefit from Semiotic Engineering in design activities, and describe our future steps in this research. Copyright 2008 ACM.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2008SemioticEngineeringPractice,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Cypher, A.},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering in Practice: Redesigning the Coscripter Interface},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces AVI},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {165--172},
  doi = {10.1145/1385569.1385597}, 
}
---
Sampaio, A. L. & de Souza, C. S.
Usuários Podem Escrever Especificações de Sistemas? Um Estudo Empírico com Uma Linguagem de Script
Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2008 , pp. 224-233

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The use of information systems has grown rapidly in recent years, but the number of stakeholders has not grown at the same rate. Thus, there is a tendency to engage and empower end users in the software development process (EUD). Furthermore, users can participate in the development of additional functions to an existing system. This research focus on the creation of new functions (or extensions) in an existing web interface by specifying a series of actions. In this paper we present the results of our first study to analyse how two distinct groups of end users respond to the use of a macro language for the Web (CoScripter), while trying to represent system extensions. The study thus suggests that: (1) CoScripter is suitable for the specification of system extensions by end users, but (2) it needs some improvements in order to meet the needs of End User Development (EUD).

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sampaio2008UsuariosPodemEscrever,
  author = {Sampaio, Andréia Libório and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Usuários Podem Escrever Especificações de Sistemas? Um Estudo Empírico com Uma Linguagem de Script},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {Sociedade Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {224--233},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1497470.1497495}, 
}
---
Leitão, C. F.; de Souza, C. & Barbosa, C. M. A.
Face-to-face Sociability Signs Made Explicit in CMC
Baranauskas, C.; Palanque, P.; Abascal, J. & Barbosa, S.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007, Springer, 2007, 4662 , pp. 5-18

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper discusses how semiotic engineering can support the formulation of problems and solutions involved in handling face-to-face (F2F) sociability models in computer-mediated communication (CMC). Based on a case study where a group of users migrated through different types of CMC systems, we show that the designer}s model of F2F sociability is extensively signified and encoded into technology, whether they know it or not. Users are deeply affected by the designers' F2F sociability models. Two qualitative methods of analysis are used to reveal the richness of interpretive and communicative processes in which online communities are involved, and the interplay of designers' and users' signs at interaction time.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leitao2007FacefaceSociability,
  author = {Leitão, C. F. and de Souza, C.S. and Barbosa, C. M. A.},
  editor = {Cecilia Baranauskas and Philippe Palanque and Julio Abascal and Simone Barbosa},
  title = {Face-to-face Sociability Signs Made Explicit in CMC},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4662},
  number = {PART 1},
  pages = {5--18},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_4}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
Getting Your Message across to Your Users
Baranauskas, C.; Palanque, P.; Abascal, J. & Barbosa, S.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007, Springer, 2007, 4662 , pp. 2-3

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Most models, theories and perspectives in human-computer interaction focus on users communicating with systems. The very name of our discipline illustrates how pervasive is the idea that users and systems are the only relevant parties involved in the process we want to design or investigate. For over a decade, the Semiotic Engineering Research Group (SERG) has elaborated an alternative account of HCI. In it, what we traditionally call human-computer interaction is characterized as a particular instance of a more general process of computer-mediated human communication. Semiotic Engineering views HCI as a case of designer-to-user metacommunication, or communication about how to communicate (with/through the system), when and what for. The designer}s metacommunication message conveyed by means of a wide range of communicative exchanges between the users and the system. The system represents designers at interaction time, and each turn of communicative exchange adds a significant piece of knowledge and experience to what eventually becomes the user}s interpretation of the designer}s message. Thus the metacommunication process is achieved. In this talk I will provide various examples of designer-to-user metacommunication, and discuss some of the main implications of bringing designers onto the stage where human-computer interaction takes place. I will place a special emphasis on how this alternative perspective encourages designers to express certain values, beliefs and expectations regarding the interactive artifacts they produce, compared with what is enabled and encouraged by more traditional views of HCI. Given the theme of INTERACT 2007, I will illustrate the differences with systems that clearly demand, and encode, an attitude of social responsibility from their designers and developers. I will wrap up the talk with some final considerations about the cultural roots of Semiotic Engineering, and a conjecture that HCI theories developed outside North America and Europe will reflect their proponents' concern and engagement with remarkably different social and cultural backgrounds. Perhaps, our international community}s investment in encouraging the development of such theories will foster progress of our discipline in some innovative directions.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2007GettingYourMessage,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {Cecilia Baranauskas and Philippe Palanque and Julio Abascal and Simone Barbosa},
  title = {Getting Your Message across to Your Users},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4662},
  number = {PART 1},
  pages = {2--3},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_2}, 
}
---
Barbosa, C. M. A.; Prates, R. O. & de Souza, C.
Identifying Potential Social Impact of Collaborative Systems at Design Time
Baranauskas, C.; Palanque, P.; Abascal, J. & Barbosa, S.(Eds.)
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007, Springer, 2007, 4662 , pp. 31-44

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents Manas, a Semiotic Engineering epistemic tool for the design of collaborative systems (CoSys) whose aim is to expand the designers' knowledge and awareness of their influence on groups and group dynamics. Manas has been developed to help designers represent their conception of computer-mediated communication and reflect upon some of its potential social effects, springing from user-system interaction, as well from user-user interaction (through the system). The paper illustrates how Manas can lead designers to reflect upon both the design problem and its proposed solution(s), which allows them to make more conscious decisions. Increased knowledge and awareness should then enhance the quality of CoSys design.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Barbosa2007IdentifyingPotentialSocial,
  author = {Barbosa, C. M. A. and Prates, R. O. and de Souza, C.S.},
  editor = {Cecilia Baranauskas and Philippe Palanque and Julio Abascal and Simone Barbosa},
  title = {Identifying Potential Social Impact of Collaborative Systems at Design Time},
  booktitle = {Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4662},
  number = {PART 1},
  pages = {31--44},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_6}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. & Barbosa., S. D. J.
A Semiotic Framing for End-User Development
Lieberman, H.; Paternò, F. & Wulf, V.(Eds.)
End User Development, Springer, 2006 , pp. 401-426

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
One approach to designing usable and enjoyable computer applications is to say that designers need better methods and tools to understand users and their contexts, and to encode this understanding into closed computer systems. Another is to acknowledge that there will always be unattended user needs, and that the way to increase usersâ satisfaction is to help them modify systems in order to meet constantly changing requirements. Different techniques are proposed in one approach usually without reference to the other. We present an overarching perspective of human-computer interactionwhere both meet, and provide a semiotic characterization of designersâ and usersâ activities that clarifies the tradeoffs involved in designing and choosing techniques in either approach. Central to this characterization is the role of intentions in what users mean to say and do when using computers. Our characterization is in line with a broader concept of usability, in which systems must support usersâ improvisation and creativity.

BibTeX:
@incollection{Souza2006SemioticFramingEnd,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Barbosa., S. D. J.},
  editor = {Lieberman, Henry and Paternò, Fabio and Wulf, Volker},
  title = {A Semiotic Framing for End-User Development},
  booktitle = {End User Development},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {401--426},
  doi = {10.1007/1-4020-5386-X_18}, 
}
---
Salgado, L. C. d. C.; Bim, S. A. & de Souza, C. S.
Comparação entre os Métodos de Avaliação de Base Cognitiva e Semiótica
Proceedings of VII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2006 , pp. 158-167

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In this article we present a comparative study of three methods: Cognitive Walkthrough, Heuristic Evaluation, and Communicability Evaluation. The aim of the study is to compare costs and benefits of the three, so as to inform decisions about which one to choose when time and feedback for (re)design are the most critical factors. The study was carried out as an academic exercise by graduate students in HCI. Results suggest that, of the three methods, Communicability Evaluation produces the most informative results, whereas Heuristic Evaluation is the most cost-effective.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Salgado2006Comparacaoentreos,
  author = {Salgado, Luciana Cardoso de Castro and Bim, Sílvia Amélia and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Comparação entre os Métodos de Avaliação de Base Cognitiva e Semiótica},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of VII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {158--167},
  doi = {10.1145/1298023.1298045}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
Da (s) subjetividade (s) na produção de tecnologia
Nicolaci-da-Costa, A. M.(Ed.)
Cabeças Digitais: O cotidiano na era da informação, PUC-Rio/Loyola, 2006 , pp. 81-106

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Neste trabalho pretendemos apresentar argumentos a favor de uma frente multidisciplinar que tome por objeto de estudo as subjetividades que atuam na “produção”, e não apenas no “consumo”, de TIC. Utilizamos essencialmente três bases para sustentar o argumento: o trabalho de B. J. Fogg (2003) sobre tecnologias persuasivas; nossa própria Engenharia Semiótica (de Souza, 2005); e a recente re-edição do famoso “The Second Self” de Turkle (2005). Este tripé é ele mesmo multidisciplinar, de vez que o trabalho de Fogg se desenvolve na fronteira entre a Teoria da Comunicação e a Filosofia, a Engenharia Semiótica reúne a Informática e a Semiótica, e o trabalho de Turkle versa sobre as relações psicológicas que se verificam entre as pessoas e (seus) computadores. Ilustramos os aspectos subjetivos da produção tecnológica por meio de exemplos reais, escolhidos entre os softwares usados para tocar CD. Concluímos o artigo com uma discussão sobre os potenciais benefícios de uma caracterização adequada dos aspectos subjetivos da produção tecnológica, alinhando-nos com aqueles que defendem abertamente a multidisciplinaridade como meio de progresso científico e tecnológico.

BibTeX:
@incollection{Souza2006Dassubjetividade,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  editor = {Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa},
  title = {Da (s) subjetividade (s) na produção de tecnologia},
  booktitle = {Cabeças Digitais: O cotidiano na era da informação},
  publisher = {PUC-Rio/Loyola},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {81--106}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
Semiotic Engineering - A New Paradigm for Designing Interactive Systems
IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, 2006, 214 , pp. 231-242

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents semiotic engineering - a semiotic theory of HCI. The theory has the advantage to integrate back end and front end design and development perspectives into a single metacommunication process that affects the user}s experience and, ultimately, the success of any system. By means of illustrative examples, we show the kinds of effects that can be achieved with the theory, and discuss why a semiotic perspective is relevant for the future of information systems.

BibTeX:
@book{Souza2006SemioticEngineeringNew,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering - A New Paradigm for Designing Interactive Systems},
  booktitle = {IFIP International Federation for Information Processing},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {214},
  pages = {231--242},
  doi = {10.1007/978-0-387-34732-5_21}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.; Leitão, C. F.; Prates, R. O. & da Silva, E. J.
The Semiotic Inspection Method
Proceedings of VII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2006 , pp. 148-157

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper describes semiotic inspection, a semiotic engineering evaluation method. It briefly identifies the essence of theory-based evaluation methods in HCI. Then it provides a detailed description and illustration of this method, which is based on a semiotic theory of HCI. It discusses its theoretical stance in semiotic engineering compared to the communicability evaluation method, as well as the perceived advantages and disadvantages of semiotic inspection. Finally, it points at the next steps in the semiotic inspection research agenda.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2006SemioticInspectionMethod,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Leitão, Carla Faria and Prates, Raquel Oliveira and da Silva, Elton José},
  title = {The Semiotic Inspection Method},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of VII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {148--157},
  doi = {10.1145/1298023.1298044}, 
}
---
Barbosa, C.; Prates, R. & de Souza, C.
Marq-g*: A Semiotic Engineering Approach for Supporting the Design of Multi-User Applications
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM, 2005, 124 , pp. 128-138

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents MArq-G*, a semiotic engineering epistemic tool for the design of multi-user applications that leverages the designers' knowledge about the influence such applications may have on group dynamics and development. More precisely, MArq-G*is a conceptual architecture model for multi-user application design-support tools. It has been devised to help designers express part of their vision and rationale about group communication processes, as well as reflect upon potential consequences of their design decisions. The paper illustrates how MArq-G*enables different insights from those motivated by the use of task-based models in design. Moreover, a contrast with insights enabled by design ontologies inspired by speech act theory shows how MArq-G*supports new kinds of perspectives on multi-user applications.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Barbosa2005Marqg*Semiotic,
  author = {Barbosa, C.M.D.A. and Prates, R.O. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Marq-g*: A Semiotic Engineering Approach for Supporting the Design of Multi-User Applications},
  booktitle = {ACM International Conference Proceeding Series},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124},
  pages = {128--138},
  doi = {10.1145/1111360.1111373}, 
}
---
Pontes, A. M.; de Souza, C. S. & Barbosa, S. D. J.
Organização Conversacional: Inspeção das Representações na Wikipedia
Proceedings of the 2005 Latin American Conference on Human-computer Interaction, ACM, 2005 , pp. 235-245

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Neste trabalho analisamos uma ferramenta do tipo Wiki, chamada WikiPedia. Nesta análise mostramos como os designers desta ferramenta criam seus sistemas de significação e como os usuários apropriam-se deste sistema de signos e criam, a partir das suas interpretações e das restrições impostas pelos designers, seus próprios sistemas de significação. O foco da análise recaiu na representação de signos voltados à caracterização de uma conversa. Esta caracterização permitiu, além de um olhar mais especifico em relação aos sistemas de signos da WikiPedia, uma classificação genérica de sistemas de apoio à participação em discussões (SAPD}s ).

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pontes2005OrganizacaoConversacionalInspecao,
  author = {Pontes, Adéle Malta and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira},
  title = {Organização Conversacional: Inspeção das Representações na Wikipedia},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2005 Latin American Conference on Human-computer Interaction},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {235--245},
  doi = {10.1145/1111360.1111384}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
Semiotic Engineering: Bringing Designers and Users Together at Interaction Time
Interacting with Computers, 2005, 17 , pp. 317-341

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Semiotic engineering is a semiotic theory of human–computer interaction, where interactive computer systems are viewed as one-shot messages sent from designers to users. Through the system's interface, in many direct and indirect ways, designers are telling the users how they can, should, or must interact with the system in order to achieve a particular range of goals anticipated at design time. Designers are thus active interlocutors at human–computer interaction time. Their interactive discourse is delivered implicitly and/or explicitly by the system, which constitutes the designer's deputy. The importance of bringing designers and users together at interaction time springs from the intellectual nature of software artifacts. They are the result of human reasoning, choice and decision, rather than the direct effect of universal or natural laws. An adequate understanding of interactive artifacts depends on apprehending and comprehending the human intellect in action. Hence, in addition to producing interactive artifacts, designers must also introduce them appropriately, as is the case of other intellectual products. In this paper, we show how semiotic engineering can provide substantial theoretic support for viewing and exploring design possibilities brought about by this shift in perspective. We also discuss ontological and epistemological aspects of the theory, and conclude that it can bridge some of the gaps between other fragmented HCI theories and approaches.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2005SemioticEngineeringBringing,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering: Bringing Designers and Users Together at Interaction Time},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {317--341},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953543805000202},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2005.01.007}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
The Semiotic Engineering of Human-Computer Interaction
The MIT Press, 2005

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In The Semiotic Engineering of Human-Computer Interaction, Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza proposes an account of HCI that draws on concepts from semiotics and computer science to investigate the relationship between user and designer. Semiotics is the study of signs, and the essence of semiotic engineering is the communication between designers and users at interaction time; designers must somehow be present in the interface to tell users how to use the signs that make up a system or program. This approach, which builds on -- but goes further than -- the currently dominant user-centered approach, allows designers to communicate their overall vision and therefore helps users understand designs -- rather than simply which icon to click.

According to de Souza}s account, both designers and users are interlocutors in an overall communication process that takes place through an interface of words, graphics, and behavior. Designers must tell users what they mean by the artifact they have created, and users must understand and respond to what they are being told. By coupling semiotic theory and engineering, de Souza}s approach to HCI design encompasses the principles, the materials, the processes, and the possibilities for producing meaningful interactive computer system discourse and achieves a broader perspective than cognitive, ethnographic, or ergonomic approaches.

de Souza begins with a theoretical overview and detailed exposition of the semiotic engineering account of HCI. She then shows how this approach can be applied specifically to HCI evaluation and design of online help systems, customization and end-user programming, and multiuser applications. Finally, she reflects on the potential and opportunities for research in semiotic engineering.

BibTeX:
@book{Souza2005SemioticEngineeringHuman,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {The Semiotic Engineering of Human-Computer Interaction},
  publisher = {The MIT Press},
  year = {2005},
  url = {https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/semiotic-engineering-human-computer-interaction}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. & Preece, J.
A Framework for Analyzing and Understanding Online Communities
Interacting with Computers, 2004, 16 , pp. 579-610

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Social interactions in online communities are varied and often complex, as are the communities themselves. The characteristics of the people, the range of purposes they pursue, the type of governance policies they develop, and the design of the software supporting a community, vary from community to community. These characteristics determine a community}s sociability. Thus, the availability of powerful analytic tools to help designers understand existing technology-supported social activity online can broaden the spectrum of design knowledge and promote new insights for designing computer applications of this sort. In this paper, we present one such analytic tool - a theoretically-based online community framework (OCF). In order to demonstrate the efficacy of the framework we elaborate on its communication constituent using semiotic theory to help us. This constituent is particularly important in the OCF because it addresses computer-mediated communication between community members, and also communication from interactive software designers to users via the software they design. This latter kind of communication can shape the community}s experience to a considerable extent, as our analysis shows. The paper ends with an agenda for future research.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2004FrameworkAnalyzingUnderstanding,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Preece, J.},
  title = {A Framework for Analyzing and Understanding Online Communities},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {16},
  number = {3},
  pages = {579--610},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953543804000232},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2003.12.006}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.; Nicolaci-da-Costa, A. M.; da Silva, E. J. & Prates, R. O.
Compulsory Institutionalization: Investigating the Paradox of Computer-Supported Informal Social Processes
Interacting with Computers, 2004, 16 , pp. 635-656

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The nature and depth of technological interference on social activities online are not fully understood. We discuss one such type of interference—compulsory institutionalization, the process by which non-institutionalized face-to-face informal groups, who typically adopt implicit norms tacitly accepted by members, must create a set of explicit group structuring rules with very specific computer-encoded meanings and abide by them when they migrate to online group environments. In societies where rules can be bypassed in view of more highly valued social norms, like the Brazilian society, compulsory institutionalization may undermine experiences that are highly valued to face-to-face groups. In this article, we contrast the findings of our study with a Brazilian group of potential groupware users and those of our semiotic inspection of YahooGroups, SmartGroups and MSN Groups. We show how the systems may frustrate the group's expectations and limit their interaction online. Reflecting on the causes and consequences of compulsory institutionalization, we conclude that the social–technical gap in group technologies may not be possible to bridge completely, and that the fulcrum of scientific research in this area may include some new aspects.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2004CompulsoryInstitutionalizationInvestigating,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Nicolaci-da-Costa, Ana Maria and da Silva, Elton José and Prates, Raquel Oliveira},
  title = {Compulsory Institutionalization: Investigating the Paradox of Computer-Supported Informal Social Processes},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {16},
  number = {4},
  pages = {635--656},
  doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2004.07.003}, 
}
---
Silveira, M.; de Souza, C. & Barbosa, S.
A Method of Semiotic Engineering for the Online Help Systems Construction | Um Método da Engenharia Semiótica para a Construção de Sistemas de Ajuda Online
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM, 2003, 46 , pp. 167-177

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Online help systems are typically used (if at all) as a last resource in interactive breakdown situations. In this paper, we present a semiotic engineering method for building online help that uses fairly known design models. We discuss the benefits of having designers explicitly communicate their design vision to users and the need or opportunity to foster new cultural attitudes towards online help. We show how, as a direct communication channel from designers to users, it opens new possibilities for interaction that can be skillfully used by designers. By exploring such possibilities, designers and users may bring about more positive attitudes towards online help and counter the feeling of technological exclusion which many users express.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Silveira2003MethodSemioticEngineering,
  author = {Silveira, M.S. and de Souza, C.S. and Barbosa, S.D.J.},
  title = {A Method of Semiotic Engineering for the Online Help Systems Construction | Um Método da Engenharia Semiótica para a Construção de Sistemas de Ajuda Online},
  booktitle = {ACM International Conference Proceeding Series},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {167--177},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=944519.944537}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.; Prates, R. O. & Barbosa, S. D. J.
Adopting Information Technology As a First Step in Design
interactions, ACM, 2003, 10 , pp. 72-79

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Lessons learned from working with Brazilian social volunteers

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2003AdoptingInformationTechnology,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse S. and Prates, Raquel O. and Barbosa, Simone D. J.},
  title = {Adopting Information Technology As a First Step in Design},
  journal = {interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {10},
  number = {2},
  pages = {72--79},
  doi = {10.1145/637848.637865}, 
}
---
da Silva, E.; de Souza, C.; Prates, R. & Nicolaci-da-costa, A.
What They Want and What They Get: A Study of Light-Weight Technologies for Online Communities
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM, 2003, 46 , pp. 135-146

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In this paper, we analyze some mismatches between what is offered by light-weight technologies that support online communities and the dreams and fears of a group of 20 potential users of such technologies. In our study, members of an academic community that does not have an online extension answered an open-ended questionnaire. The answers revealed some of their expectations about group applications. With these expectations in mind, we carried out a semiotic inspection of three popular applications. Within the specific range of topics covered in the study, our findings show three important factors that seem to determine the distance between what they expect and what they get: (a) technological resources are limited, but this can be substantially improved with broad band technologies; (b) some design decisions are questionable, and should be revised; And (c) online groups must all be structured and governed by some strict rules, regardless of how informal and loose they might be offline. Factor (c), in particular, seems to be tied to deeper scientific issues involved in the inherent social-technical gap of computer technologies for groups.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Silva2003WhatTheyWant,
  author = {da Silva, E.J. and de Souza, C.S. and Prates, R.O. and Nicolaci-da-costa, A.M.},
  title = {What They Want and What They Get: A Study of Light-Weight Technologies for Online Communities},
  booktitle = {ACM International Conference Proceeding Series},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {135--146},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=944519.944534}, 
}
---
Preece, J.; Resnick, P.; Schuler, D. & de Souza, C.
What}s Sigchi}s Role in Strengthening Communities?
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, ACM, 2002 , pp. 566-567

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
On September 11 we saw how a tightly knit group worked together to penetrate the US and carry out a carefully orchestrated attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. We also saw how citizens spontaneously organized themselves to care for victims and their families, and support each other. How can the CHI community build on its knowledge of computer-mediated communication and socio-technical systems design to build a more cooperative society? The aim of this discussion is to develop a research and action agenda for CHI that strengthens communities locally, nationally and internationally. The underlying premise is that such socio-technical systems can be assessed and improved so that they more effectively facilitate information exchange, emotional support, and consensus building.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Preece2002WhatsSigchisRole,
  author = {Preece, J. and Resnick, P. and Schuler, D. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {What}s Sigchi}s Role in Strengthening Communities?},
  booktitle = {Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {566--567},
  doi = {10.1145/506443.506485}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Barbosa, S. & Prates, R.
A Semiotic Engineering Approach to HCI
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, ACM, 2001 , pp. 55-56

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Designing software involves good perception, good reasoning, and a talent to express oneself effectively through programming and interactive languages. Semiotic theories can help HCI designers increase their power to perceive, reason and communicate. In this paper we present the semiotic engineering approach to HCI and some of the results that have been reached at the Semiotic Engineering Research Group (SERG) at the Informatics Department at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio). Copyright textcopyright 2012 ACM, Inc.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2001SemioticEngineeringApproacha,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Barbosa, S.D.J. and Prates, R.O.},
  title = {A Semiotic Engineering Approach to HCI},
  booktitle = {Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {55--56},
  doi = {10.1145/634067.634104}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Barbosa, S. & Prates, R.
A Semiotic Engineering Approach to User Interface Design
Knowledge-Based Systems, 2001, 14 , pp. 461-465

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Designing software involves good perception, good reasoning, and a talent to express oneself effectively through programming and interactive languages. Semiotic theories can help HCI designers increase their power to perceive, reason and communicate. By presenting some of the results we have reached with semiotic engineering over the last few years, we suggest that the main contributions of semiotic theory in supporting HCI design are: to provide designers with new perceptions on the process and product of HCI design; to bind together all the stages of software development and use, giving them a unique homogeneous treatment; and to pose innovative questions that extend the frontiers of HCI investigations.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2001SemioticEngineeringApproach,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Barbosa, S.D.J. and Prates, R.O.},
  title = {A Semiotic Engineering Approach to User Interface Design},
  journal = {Knowledge-Based Systems},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {14},
  number = {8},
  pages = {461--465},
  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950705101001368},
  doi = {10.1016/S0950-7051(01)00136-8}, 
}
---
Barbosa, S. & de Souza, C.
Extending Software through Metaphors and Metonymies
Knowledge-Based Systems, 2001, 14 , pp. 15-27

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This article is about applications that can be customized or extended through their own user interface. This is achieved by the interface}s ability to interpret users' non-literal expressions, namely metaphorical and metonymic ones. Such increased interpretive intelligence depends on static and dynamic models of the domain and application, from which new figurative meanings are abducted automatically or semi-automatically. The system performs controlled modifications on the underlying models, based on inferences it draws about users' intentions as they produce figurative utterances.

BibTeX:
@article{Barbosa2001ExtendingSoftwareMetaphors,
  author = {Barbosa, S.D.J. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Extending Software through Metaphors and Metonymies},
  journal = {Knowledge-Based Systems},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {14},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {15--27},
  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950705100001040},
  doi = {10.1016/S0950-7051(00)00104-0}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.
Semiotic Approaches to User Interface Design - Editorial
Knowledge-Based Systems, 2001, 14 , pp. 415-418

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This Special Issue of Knowledge-Based Systems gives the readers interested in representation and communication issues a chance to assess a wide range of perspectives on what Semiotics has in common not only with HCI, but also with Computer Science in general.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2001SemioticApproachesUser,
  author = {de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Semiotic Approaches to User Interface Design - Editorial},
  journal = {Knowledge-Based Systems},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {14},
  number = {8},
  pages = {415--418},
  url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950705101001332},
  doi = {10.1016/S0950-7051(01)00133-2}, 
}
---
Silveira, M. S.; de Souza, C. S. & Barbosa, S. D. J.
Semiotic Engineering Contributions for Designing Online Help Systems
Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Computer Documentation, ACM, 2001 , pp. 31-38

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Our goal is to improve the content of help systems and provide better access to it, by giving users opportunities to signal breakdowns during interaction. To this end, we use a semiotic engineering model that explores both direct and indirect messages sent from designers to users via systems' interfaces. These messages represent how the designers conceived of the application, how they built it, and why. The online help system is an important component, because this is where designers have the best chances to explicitly express their vision. In this paper we review some of the classifications used to characterize help systems, and suggest that user-intent sensitivity should be explored as a new classification if we are targeting at efficient designer/user communication. We allow users to signal their intents by choosing among a limited set of predefined utterances, which provide an entry point to a cohesive discourse structure. The discourse is about the application}s design rationale, and the operational and tactical instructions about how to use the application. Coupled with the application}s conceptual model, and also the task and interaction models, these utterances allow help systems to provide information with increased probability of addressing the user}s intentions.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Silveira2001SemioticEngineeringContributions,
  author = {Silveira, Milene Selbach and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Barbosa, Simone D. J.},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering Contributions for Designing Online Help Systems},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Computer Documentation},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {31--38},
  doi = {10.1145/501516.501523}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Barbosa, S. & da Silva, S.
Semiotic Engineering Principles for Evaluating End-User Programming Environments
Interacting with Computers, 2001, 13 , pp. 467-495

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
End user programming (EUP) environments are difficult to evaluate empirically. Most users do not engage in programming, and those who do are often discouraged by the complexity of programming tasks. Often the difficulties arise from the programming languages in which users are expected to express themselves. But there are other difficulties associated with designing extensions and adjustments to artifacts that have been originally designed by others. This paper characterizes EUP as a semiotic design process, and presents two principles that can be used to illustrate the distinctions between the various kinds of techniques and approaches proposed in this field. The principles support a preliminary theoretical mode of EUP and should thus facilitate the definition and interpretation of empirical evaluation studies. They also define some specific semiotic qualifications that more usable and applicable EUP languages could be expected to have.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2001SemioticEngineeringPrinciples,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Barbosa, S.D.J. and da Silva, S.R.P.},
  title = {Semiotic Engineering Principles for Evaluating End-User Programming Environments},
  journal = {Interacting with Computers},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {13},
  number = {4},
  pages = {467--495},
  url = {https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article-abstract/13/4/467/733385},
  doi = {10.1016/S0953-5438(00)00051-5}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O.; Barbosa, S. D. J. & de Souza, C. S.
A Case Study for Evaluating Interface Design through Communicability
Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, ACM, 2000 , pp. 308-316

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Communicability evaluation is a method based on semiotic engineering that aims at assessing how designers communicate to users their design intents and chosen interactive principles, and thus complements traditional usability evaluation methods.In this paper, we present a case study in which we evaluate how communicablity tagging of an application changes along users learning curves. Our main goal was to have indications of how communicability evaluation along a learning period helps provide valuable information about interface designs, and identify communicative and interactive problems, as users become more proficient in the application.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Prates2000CaseStudyEvaluating,
  author = {Prates, Raquel O. and Barbosa, Simone D. J. and de Souza, Clarisse S.},
  title = {A Case Study for Evaluating Interface Design through Communicability},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {308--316},
  doi = {10.1145/347642.347777}, 
}
---
Vilain, P.; Schwabe, D. & de Souza, C. S.
A Diagrammatic Tool for Representing User Interaction in UML
Evans, A.; Kent, S. & Selic, B.(Eds.)
UML 2000 — The Unified Modeling Language: Advancing the Standard Third International Conference York, UK, October 2–6, 2000 Proceedings, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000 , pp. 133-147

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The UML suggests the employment of use cases for capturing the requirements and for specifying the interaction between the users and the system being modeled. Use cases are easily understood by users since they are essentially textual descriptions, but lack the precision and the conciseness accomplished by the other diagrammatic tools of UML. Besides, there is no systematic method that helps the designer to obtain such UML diagrams from a set of use cases. In this paper we present a diagrammatic tool to represent the users/system interaction called User Interaction Diagram (UID). UIDs have proven to be a valuable tool to gather requirements since they describe the ex-change of information between the system and the user in a high level of abstraction, without considering specific user interface aspects and design details as in other UML diagrams. We show how UIDs can be incorporated into the requirements and analysis workflows of the Unified Process for software development.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Vilain2000DiagrammaticToolRepresenting,
  author = {Vilain, Patrícia and Schwabe, Daniel and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  editor = {Evans, Andy and Kent, Stuart and Selic, Bran},
  title = {A Diagrammatic Tool for Representing User Interaction in UML},
  booktitle = {UML 2000 — The Unified Modeling Language: Advancing the Standard Third International Conference York, UK, October 2–6, 2000 Proceedings},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {133--147},
  doi = {10.1007/3-540-40011-7_10}, 
}
---
Barbosa, S. D. J. & de Souza, C. S.
Extending Software through Metaphors and Metonymies
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, ACM, 2000 , pp. 13-20

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This article is about applications that can be customized or extended through their own user interface. This is achieved by the interface}s ability to interpret users' non-literal expressions, namely metaphorical and metonymic ones. Such increased interpretive intelligence depends on static and dynamic models of the domain and application, from which new figurative meanings are abducted automatically or semi-automatically. The system performs controlled modifications on the underlying models, based on its interferences about users' intentions as they produce figurative utterances.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Barbosa2000ExtendingSoftwareMetaphors,
  author = {Barbosa, Simone D. J. and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Extending Software through Metaphors and Metonymies},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {13--20},
  doi = {10.1145/325737.325756}, 
}
---
Barbosa, S.; da Silva, S. R. & de Souza, C.
Extensible Software Applications as Semiotic Engineering Laboratories
Danesi, M.; Perron, P.; Umiker-Sebeok, J. & Watanabe, A.(Eds.)
Semiotics and Information Sciences, Legas Press, 2000 , pp. 77-96

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Semiotic aspects of programs, programming and computing have been explored by researchers and philosophers who have adopted a wide spectrum of perspectives. In particular, the investigation of engineering tasks involved in designing and implementing user interfaces, previously explored within the framework of cognitive engineering and ontological engineering, has led to independent versions of what a semiotic engineering endeavor might be. Stressing either on the overall semiotic environments within which users and systems are immersed or on a semiotic characterization of specific artificial language design, interpretation and use, recent studies in semiotic engineering attempt to capture the technological meaning of Umberto Eco's fictional semiotic machines. In this paper, we try to make one more step in the direction of understanding the semiotic challenges of user interface design in the context of extensible applications. While in previous work, we focussed on proposing and/or discussing mechanisms and constraints that support the possibility of letting users (re)program and adapt computer applications to satisfy their personal needs, we now try to identify and formulate some specific semiotic issues associated to end user programming (EUP).

BibTeX:
@incollection{Barbosa2000ExtensibleSoftwareApplications,
  author = {Barbosa, Simone and da Silva, Sergio Roberto and de Souza, Clarisse},
  editor = {Marcel Danesi and Paul Perron and Jean Umiker-Sebeok and Anthony Watanabe},
  title = {Extensible Software Applications as Semiotic Engineering Laboratories},
  booktitle = {Semiotics and Information Sciences},
  publisher = {Legas Press},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {77--96}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
HCI in Brazil
SIGCHI Bulletin, ACM, 2000, 32 , pp. 15-19

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
In less than 3 years, two national HCI workshops have been held gathering HCI researchers, practitioners, and students from different states in the country. This is the result of a combination of factors whose origins can be traced to the needs and trends in our local computer industry, to the pace of technological changes in Brazilian society, to an agile response of those involved in science, technology and education policies, to changes in the curricula of college and university programs, to the pressing challenges of a global economy and culture, and to many other factors we cannot competently survey here.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2000HCIBrazil,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {HCI in Brazil},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bulletin},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {32},
  number = {2},
  pages = {15--19},
  doi = {10.1145/360405.360425}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O.; de Souza, C. S. & Barbosa, S. D. J.
Methods and Tools: A Method for Evaluating the Communicability of User Interfaces
interactions, ACM, 2000, 7 , pp. 31-38

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The communicability evaluation method described in this paper provides a way for the evaluators to identify points in which the designer may have failed to convey to users his intended message, as well as a way for users to communicate with the actual designers, although indirectly, what they have not understood or agreed with. When users perform the communicability evaluation, they can spontaneously express their expectations, attitudes, interpretations, approval, or rejection toward HCI design choices present in software. When designers or experts perform the test, they produce what should be perceived as an inferred message about the same topics, qualified by the evaluator}s background and expertise in HCI.

BibTeX:
@article{Prates2000MethodsToolsMethod,
  author = {Prates, Raquel O. and de Souza, Clarisse S. and Barbosa, Simone D. J.},
  title = {Methods and Tools: A Method for Evaluating the Communicability of User Interfaces},
  journal = {interactions},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  number = {1},
  pages = {31--38},
  doi = {10.1145/328595.328608}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Prates, R. & Carey, T.
Missing and Declining Affordances: Are These Appropriate Concepts?
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, 2000, 7 , pp. 26-34

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The concept of affordance has been brought to HCI by Don Norman, who has recently protested against its misuse by designers. They say they will put affordances in the interface, or afford this or that to the users, but Norman points out that affordances only exist inasmuch as they are perceived by users. Therefore, it doesn't make sense to use the term as designers do. This paper takes the designers' phrases as a spontaneous expression of design intent and explores the correspondences between these and two of the phenomena captured by communicability evaluation: missing and declining affordances. It highlights some useful distinctions between levels of affordances, and hints at possible links between communicative and cognitive perspectives. It suggests that framing affordances within a broader communicative dimension, and taking advantage of the rhetoric that people use to describe what they are doing, can bring interesting insights to design.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza2000MissingDecliningAffordances,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Prates, R.O. and Carey, T.},
  title = {Missing and Declining Affordances: Are These Appropriate Concepts?},
  journal = {Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  number = {1},
  pages = {26--34},
  url = {http://ref.scielo.org/d8y99f},
  doi = {10.1590/S0104-65002000000200004}, 
}
---
de Souza, C.; Prates, R.; Barbosa, S. & Edmonds, E.
Semiotic Approaches to User Interface Design
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, ACM, 2000 , pp. 366

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Hartson (1998) has pointed out that although people have studied interfaces and applied theories (mostly cognitive psychology) to them, and that the majority of the guidelines and principles applied have arisen mostly out of practice than theory. He claims that the HCI field, especially in realworld practice, could benefit a great deal more from theory. As the discipline whose aim is to investigate processes of communication and signification amongst agents in general, Semiotics is bound to contribute to the field of humancomputer interaction with complementary perspectives, new methods and concepts, which can shed light on some of the major HCI challenges in design and evaluation. Viewing HCI as a complex human communication process, involving designers and users, and the mediation of communicative artifacts, Computer Semiotics and Semiotic Engineering, for instance, are some of the approaches in Applied Semiotics that directly address the issues bearing on human-computer interaction. The workshop aims to bring together researchers and practitioners of HCI and Semiotics and to give them the opportunity to discuss how the two fields can provide new knowledge and a new interdisciplinary research agenda in HCI.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza2000SemioticApproachesUser,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Prates, R.O. and Barbosa, S.D.J. and Edmonds, E.A.},
  title = {Semiotic Approaches to User Interface Design},
  booktitle = {Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {366},
  doi = {10.1145/633292.633513}, 
}
---
Oliveira, D. A. S.; de Souza, C. S. & Haeusler, E. H.
Structured Argument Generation in a Logic-Based KB System
Moss, L. S.; Ginzburg, J. & de Rijke, M.(Eds.)
Logic, Language and Computation (Vol. 2), Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, 1999 , pp. 167-190

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper presents a method for the transformation of Natural Deduction proofs into hypertext-like structured explanations to be provided by knowledge-based systems. First-Order Logic and a variant of the Natural Deduction system are taken as a basis for representing knowledge and reasoning over a generic classification domain. Information selection and restructuring are used to convert proofs into argumentation schemata. Our goal is to produce structured arguments that can be converted into Natural Language explanatory hypertexts which satisfy some pragmatical constraints. Thus, pragmatically motivated rules are incorporated to the semantic component of a friendly user interface language in which explanations are requested and conveyed.

BibTeX:
@inbook{Oliveira1999StructuredArgumentGeneration,
  author = {Denise Aboim Sande Oliveira and Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Edward Hermann Haeusler},
  editor = {Lawrence S. Moss and Jonathan Ginzburg and Maarten de Rijke},
  title = {Structured Argument Generation in a Logic-Based KB System},
  booktitle = {Logic, Language and Computation (Vol. 2)},
  publisher = {Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {167--190},
  url = {http://www.inf.puc-rio.br/ clarisse/publications/Oliveira1999.pdf}, 
}
---
Varejão, F.; Fromherz, M.; Garcia, A. & de Souza, C.
Integrated Framework for the Specification and Design of Reprographic Machines
Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, 1998 , pp. 63-66

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Developing modern reprographic machines is a non-trivial task, due to ever-increasing functionality and productivity requirements. Competition in the market place motivates additional requirements, such as low cost and reduced size, and an important part of the design is often to optimize conflicting objectives. Time-to-market requirements make the design task even harder by imposing strong limitations on the development time schedule.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Varejao1998IntegratedFrameworkSpecification,
  author = {Varejão, F. and Fromherz, M. and Garcia, A. and de Souza, C.},
  title = {Integrated Framework for the Specification and Design of Reprographic Machines},
  booktitle = {Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {63--66},
  url = {https://parc-public.pages-external.parc.com/-/xle/-/jobs/197/artifacts/public/isl/members/fromherz/publications/aieng-abstract.html}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O. & de Souza, C. S.
On the Rationale of Interface Semiotics for Multi-user Applications
Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control (ISIC) held jointly with IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (CIRA) Intell, 1998 , pp. 759-764

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
The design of multi-user interfaces poses additional problems in terms of communicative systems, since not only must users interact with software, but also among themselves. This paper presents a semiotically motivated proposal for an interactive language design model that supports explanations about design rationale and augments the "teachability" of computer supported collaborative work applications.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Prates1998RationaleInterfaceSemiotics,
  author = {R. O. Prates and C. S. de Souza},
  title = {On the Rationale of Interface Semiotics for Multi-user Applications},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control (ISIC) held jointly with IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (CIRA) Intell},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {759--764},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/713815},
  doi = {10.1109/ISIC.1998.713815}, 
}
---
Prates, R. O.; Sieckenius de Souza, C. S. & Garcia, A. C. B.
A Semiotic Framework for Multi-user Interfaces
SIGCHI Bulletin, ACM, 1997, 29 , pp. 28-39

BibTeX:
@article{Prates1997SemioticFrameworkMulti,
  author = {Prates, Raquel Oliveira and Sieckenius de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra},
  title = {A Semiotic Framework for Multi-user Interfaces},
  journal = {SIGCHI Bulletin},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {29},
  number = {2},
  pages = {28--39},
  doi = {10.1145/255065.255070}, 
}
---
Garcia, A. & de Souza, C.
Add + : Including Rhetorical Structures in Active Documents
Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM, 1997, 11 , pp. 109-124

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
A design is a plan containing guidelines to build and understand an artifact. Generally, this plan is constructed by a team of designers with different tasks, but sharing a common objective, that is, to create a high-quality, low-cost integrated artifact. Active Design Documents (ADDs) are powerful tools for cooperative design because they account for revealing the rationale among design participants while assisting each of them in their own. Design rationale capture and retrieval are critical issues on building documentation assistant tools. In this paper, we propose to achieve more efficient and effective delivery of design and designers intent by resorting to rhetorical means. The wealth of knowledge kept in ADD}s knowledge bases is organized into high-level Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) schema and mapped onto input and output screen configurations that gear the interaction between systems and users. We illustrate the effects of such an organization with evidences from an implemented version of ADD for the domain of offshore platform.

BibTeX:
@article{Garcia1997Add,
  author = {Garcia, A.C.B. and de Souza, C.S.},
  title = {Add + : Including Rhetorical Structures in Active Documents},
  journal = {Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {109--124},
  doi = {10.1017/S0890060400001906}, 
}
---
de Azevedo, G. P.; de Souza, C. S. & Feijo, B.
Enhancing the Human-Computer Interface of Power System Applications
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 1996, 11 , pp. 646-653

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper examines a topic of increasing importance: the interpretation of the massive amount of data available to power system engineers. The solutions currently adopted in the presentation of data in graphical interfaces are discussed. It is demonstrated that the representations of electric diagrams can be considerably enhanced through the adequate exploitation of resources available in full-graphics screens and the use of basic concepts from human-factors research. Enhanced representations of electric diagrams are proposed and tested. The objective is to let the user "see" the behavior of the power system, allowing for better interpretation of program data and results and improving user's productivity.

BibTeX:
@article{Azevedo1996EnhancingHumanComputer,
  author = {G. Pires de Azevedo and C. Sieckenius de Souza and B. Feijo},
  title = {Enhancing the Human-Computer Interface of Power System Applications},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Power Systems},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {646--653},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/496134},
  doi = {10.1109/59.496134}, 
}
---
Bicharra Garcia, A. C. & de Souza, C. S.
Rhetorical Structures in the Delivery of Design Intent
Computing in Civil Engineering (New York), 1995, 2 , pp. 1443-1452

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Active Documents are powerful tools for capturing design intent. However, delivering design rationale is a challenging task. Current implementations of Active Documents are deprived of global rhetorical organization. Thus, users are prone to misinterpreting the relations that hold among pieces of knowledge on the screen, and to sub estimating the system}s actual potential. In this paper we show how the addition of rhetorically organized explanation plans positively impact the delivery of design intent.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BicharraGarcia1995RhetoricalStructuresDelivery,
  author = {Bicharra Garcia, Ana Cristina and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Rhetorical Structures in the Delivery of Design Intent},
  booktitle = {Computing in Civil Engineering (New York)},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {1443--1452},
  url = {https://cedb.asce.org/CEDBsearch/record.jsp?dockey=0094344}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
The Semiotic Engineering of User Interface Languages
International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 1993, 39 , pp. 753-773

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Semiotic approaches to design have recently shown that systems are messages sent from designers so users. In this paper we examine the nature of such messages and show that systems are messages that can send and receive other messages—they are metacommunication artefacts that should be engineered according to explicit semiotic principles. User interface languages are the primary expressive resource for such complex communication environments. Existing cognitively-based research has provided results which set the target interface designers should hit, but little is said about how to make successful decisions during the process of design itself. In an attempt to give theoretical support to the elaboration of user interface languages, we explore Eco's Theory of Sign Production (U. Eco, A Theory of Semiotics, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1976) and build a semiotic framework within which many design issues can be explained and predicted.

BibTeX:
@article{Souza1993SemioticEngineeringUser,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {The Semiotic Engineering of User Interface Languages},
  journal = {International Journal of Man-Machine Studies},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {39},
  number = {5},
  pages = {753--773},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020737383710825},
  doi = {10.1006/imms.1993.1082}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S. & Nunes, M. d. G. V.
Explanatory Text Planning in Logic Based Systems
Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Computational Linguistics - Volume 2, Association for Computational Linguistics, 1992 , pp. 742-748

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This paper discusses aspects of the planning of explanatory texts for logic based systems. It presents a method for deriving Natural Language text plans from Natural Deduction-based structures. This approach allows for the planning of explanatory texts in a general-purpose logic based system framework, ensuring a greater degree of portability across domains.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza1992ExplanatoryTextPlanning,
  author = {de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius and Nunes, Maria das Graças Volpe},
  title = {Explanatory Text Planning in Logic Based Systems},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Computational Linguistics - Volume 2},
  publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {742--748},
  doi = {10.3115/992133.992184}, 
}
---
Scott, D. R. & de Souza, C. S.
Getting the Message across in RST-Based Text Generation
Current Research in Natural Language Generation, Academic Press Professional, Inc., 1990 , pp. 47-73

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
This chapter examines the problem of generating texts that achieve their communicative goals in an effective way. We discuss an approach to producing effective text that is geared towards ensuring that the rhetorical aspects of a message are not only preserved but enhanced in the text. This approach is strongly influenced by research in psycholinguistics and the psychology of memory, and ís based on a view of stylistics as a matter having rather more to do with cognition than aesthetics.

BibTeX:
@inbook{Scott1990GettingMessageRST,
  author = {Scott, Donia R. and de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius},
  title = {Getting the Message across in RST-Based Text Generation},
  booktitle = {Current Research in Natural Language Generation},
  publisher = {Academic Press Professional, Inc.},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {47--73},
  url = {http://www.inf.puc-rio.br/ clarisse/publications/1990_Scott-deSouza-GettingTheMessageAcross.pdf}, 
}
---
Scott, D. R. & de Souza, C. S.
Planejamento Conciliatório para Textos Descritivos Extensos
Revista Brasileira de Computação, 1990, 5 , pp. 37-42

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Um bom texto exige um bom planejamento, tanto mais quando se trata de texto extenso como a descrição de objetos de dados complexos. O presente artigo discute uma proposta de planejamento para a geração automática de descrições de Diagramas de Fluxos de Dados (o Planejamento Conciliatório), que está sendo implementado no sistema GEMA. Defende-se que questões estilísticas de redação têm grande relevância para a maximização do processamento cognitivo do leitor final. A harmonização entre plano e estilo exige profunda interação entre os componentes de planejamento e realização do gerador. Uma comparação com propostas existentes revela as vantagens relativas da abordagem conciliatória quanto à qualidade do texto.

BibTeX:
@article{Scott1990PlanejamentoConciliatoriopara,
  author = {Donia R Scott and Clarisse S de Souza},
  title = {Planejamento Conciliatório para Textos Descritivos Extensos},
  journal = {Revista Brasileira de Computação},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {37--42},
  url = {http://www.inf.puc-rio.br/ clarisse/publications/90_deSouza_PlanejamentoConciliatorio.pdf}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. & Carvalho, E.
Aspects of natural language queries to database revisited
Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, 1989

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Natural Language Interfaces for Database enquiry have lost most of their appeal since discourse theory
entered the field of Artificial Intelligence and proved the need for solid pragmatic processing in intelligent
computer-human interfaces. However, Database Systems are not likely to disappear in the near future and man-machine communications in this environment still calls for improvement. The present paper reports the results of research done along the line of syntax-oriented natural language processing in DB enquiries, emphasizing portability issues, and introduces Determination Grammars as a means to develop DB frontends.

BibTeX:
@techreport{Souza1989Aspectsnaturallanguage,
  author = {de Souza, C.S. and Carvalho, E.B.S.},
  title = {Aspects of natural language queries to database revisited},
  school = {Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio},
  year = {1989},
  number = {MCC 09/89},
  url = {ftp://ftp.inf.puc-rio.br/pub/docs/techreports/89_09_souza.pdf}, 
}
---
Souza, C. S. d.; Scott, D. & Nunes, M. d. G. V.
Enhancing Text Quality in a Question-Answering System
Morgado, J. P. M. M.(Ed.)
Proceedings of the 4th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Springer-Verlag, 1989 , pp. 222-233

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Souza1989EnhancingTextQuality,
  author = {Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius de and Scott, Donia and Nunes, Maria das Graças Volpe},
  editor = {J. P. MartinsE. M. Morgado},
  title = {Enhancing Text Quality in a Question-Answering System},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {222--233},
  url = {http://www.inf.puc-rio.br/ clarisse/publications/MCC89_08_souza.pdf},
  doi = {10.1007/3-540-51665-4_88}, 
}
---
de Souza, C. S.
Gramáticas de determinação: uma abordagem metodológica
Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, 1989

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
[No abstract available]

BibTeX:
@techreport{deSouza1989Gramaticasdedeterminacao,
  author = {Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza},
  title = {Gramáticas de determinação: uma abordagem metodológica},
  school = {Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio},
  year = {1989},
  number = {MCC 10/89},
  url = {ftp://ftp.inf.puc-rio.br/pub/docs/techreports/89_10_souza.pdf}, 
}
---
Scott, D. R. & de Souza, C. S.
Conciliatory Planning for Extended Descriptive Texts
Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, 1988

Abstract, Excerpt, Description:
Good text requires good planning. This is even more crucial when the text is long and therefore more sensitive to stylistic biunders that can affect cognitive processing. Descriptions of complex data objects are an instance of such a text. GEMA is a language generation system for producing descriptions of complex data objects. These descriptions will usually contain several paragraphs. Texts of this length demand more stylistic harmonization than is typically required of text generators, and producing them commands a great deal of interaction between planning and realizing conponents of the generator. This brings with it some computational problems that are not very well handled by existing planning approaches. We describe in this paper a planning approach that has been developed for GEMA that combines some of the more desireable features of traditional text-planning approaches and which achieves good stylistic effects. We have called this concillatory planning.

BibTeX:
@techreport{Scott1988ConciliatoryPlanningExtended,
  author = {Donia R. Scott and Clarisse S. de Souza},
  title = {Conciliatory Planning for Extended Descriptive Texts},
  school = {Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio},
  year = {1988},
  number = {MCC 13/88},
  url = {ftp://ftp.inf.puc-rio.br/pub/docs/techreports/88_13_scott.pdf}, 
}